Shui diao ge tou
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Shui diao ge tou (simplified Chinese: 水调歌头; traditional Chinese: 水調歌頭; pinyin: Shuǐ diào gē tóu) is the name of a traditional Chinese melody to which a poem in the cí style can be sung. Different poets have written different lyrics to the melody which are usually prefixed by the title "水調歌頭". The poem by Song dynasty poet Su Shi, also known as Su Dongpo, 水調歌頭·丙辰中秋 being the most famous.
Cí(詞) is one of the literary genres that are unique to the Song dynasty, and can be sung to melody. Many ancient melodies are lost to history, but modern composers often compose new melodies for cí.
Text of Su's poem
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|Original text in Chinese||English translation|
|水調歌頭1||Thinking of you|
|Mid-autumn of the Bing Chen year
Having been drinking happily over night
|When will the moon be clear and bright?
With a cup of wine in my hand, I ask the clear sky.
|I'd like to ride the wind to fly home.
Yet I fear the crystal and jade mansions
|The moon rounds the red mansion,
Stoops to silk-pad doors,
|People experience sorrow, joy, separation and reunion,
The moon may be dim or bright, round or crescent shaped,
Notes on the poem
|1.||水調歌頭||shuǐ diào gē tóu||The name of a tune.|
|2.||丙辰||bǐngchén||the ninth year of the reign of Song Emperor Shenzong (1076 C.E.), when Su Shi served as magistrate in Mizhou, present-day Zhucheng county-level city in Shandong Province.|
|3.||中秋||zhōngqiū||the Mid-Autumn Festival, on the fifteenth day of the eighth month (lunar calendar); a traditional Chinese holiday when people gather to enjoy the moon, drink wine, and eat. moon cakes|
|4.||懷||huái||to think of, miss.|
|子由||Zǐyóu||Su Zhe, courtesy name Ziyou, Su Shi's younger brother, also a famous author; at this time Su Zhe was in Jinan, Su Shi in Mizhou; the brothers had not seen each other for seven years.|
|5.||宮闕||gōngquè||a spectacular palace.|
|6.||瓊樓玉宇||qiónglóu-yùyǔ||a building made of beautiful jade, here, the Moon Palace.|
|7.||弄||nòng||to play, to sport; here, "to dance".|
|清影||qīng yǐng||crisp, cold shadow in the moonlight.|
|8.||何似||hé sì||how can it compare to...|
|9.||朱閣||zhū gé||a red pavilion.|
|10.||綺戶||qǐ hù||a door or window with carved patterns and designs.|
|11.||無眠||wú mián||sleepless; here, refers to a sleepless person.|
|12.||嬋娟||chánjuān||may refer to either Chang'e, the goddess of the moon, or simply the moon itself.|
In 1983, Liang Hong Zhi (梁弘誌) set Su's poem to new music as the song "Danyuan ren changjiu" (但願人長久; translated "Wishing We Last Forever" or "Always Faithful"). This new setting was recorded by Teresa Teng in her album dandan youqing (淡淡幽情), which also contained songs based on other poems from the Tang and Song dynasties. Later artists such as Faye Wong, Jacky Cheung and China Flowers (芳華十八) covered this song in albums and concerts.