Month

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A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which was first used and invented in Mesopotamia, as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.

Types of months in astronomy[edit]

Main article: Lunar month

The following types of months are mainly of significance in astronomy, most of them (but not the distinction between sidereal and tropical months) first recognized in Babylonian lunar astronomy.

Sidereal month[edit]

The period of the Moon's orbit as defined with respect to the celestial sphere (of the fixed stars, nowadays the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF)) is known as a sidereal month because it is the time it takes the Moon to return to a given position among the stars (Latin: sidera): 27.321661 days (27 d 7 h 43 min 11.5 s). This type of month has been observed among cultures in the Middle East, India, and China in the following way: they divided the sky into 27 or 28 lunar mansions, one for each day of the month, identified by the prominent star(s) in them.

Tropical month[edit]

It is customary to specify positions of celestial bodies with respect to the vernal equinox. Because of Earth's precession of the equinoxes, this point moves back slowly along the ecliptic. Therefore it takes the Moon less time to return to an ecliptic longitude of zero than to the same point amidst the fixed stars: 27.321582 days (27 d 7 h 43 min 4.7 s). This slightly shorter period is known as tropical month; cf. the analogous tropical year of the Sun.

Anomalistic month[edit]

The Moon's orbit approximates an ellipse rather than a circle. However, the orientation (as well as the shape) of this orbit is not fixed. In particular, the position of the extreme points (the line of the apsides: perigee and apogee), makes a full circle (lunar precession) in about 3233 days (8.85 years). It takes the Moon longer to return to the same apsis because it moved ahead during one revolution. This longer period is called the anomalistic month, and has an average length of 27.554551 days (27 d 13 h 18 min 33.2 s). The apparent diameter of the Moon varies with this period, and therefore this type has some relevance for the prediction of eclipses (see Saros), whose extent, duration, and appearance (whether total or annular) depend on the exact apparent diameter of the Moon. The apparent diameter of the full moon varies with the full moon cycle which is the beat period of the synodic and anomalistic month, and also the period after which the apsides point to the Sun again.

Draconic month[edit]

Sometimes written 'draconitic' month,[1] and also called the nodical month.[2] The orbit of the moon lies in a plane that is tilted with respect to the plane of the ecliptic: it has an inclination of about five degrees. The line of intersection of these planes defines two points on the celestial sphere: the ascending node, when the moon's path crosses the ecliptic as the moon moves into the northern hemisphere, and descending node when the moon's path crosses the ecliptic as the moon moves into the southern hemisphere. The draconic or nodical month is the average interval between two successive transits of the moon through its ascending node. Because of the sun's gravitational pull on the moon, the moon's orbit gradually rotates westward on its axis, which means the nodes gradually rotate around the earth. As a result, the time it takes the moon to return to the same node is shorter than a sidereal month. It lasts 27.212220 days (27 d 5 h 5 min 35.8 s). The plane of the moon's orbit precesses over a full circle in about 6793 days (18.631 years).

Because the moon's orbit is inclined with respect to the ecliptic, the sun, moon, and earth are in line only when the moon is at one of the nodes. Whenever this happens a solar or lunar eclipse is possible. The name "draconic" refers to a mythical dragon, said to live in the nodes and eat the sun or moon during an eclipse.[1]

Synodic month[edit]

This is the average period of the Moon's revolution with respect to the line joining the Sun and Earth. The synodic month is the period of the Moon's phases, because the Moon's appearance depends on the position of the Moon with respect to the Sun as seen from the Earth.

While the moon is orbiting the Earth, the Earth is progressing in its orbit around the Sun. After completing a sidereal month the Moon must move a little further to reach the new position having the same angular distance from the Sun. This longer period is called the synodic month (Greek: σὺν ὁδῴ, sun hodō, meaning "with the way [of the Sun]").

Since the Earth's orbit around the Sun is elliptical and not circular, the angular rate of Earth's progression around the Sun varies during the year. The angular rate is faster nearer periapsis and slower near apoapsis. The same is so for the Moon's orbit around the Earth. Because of these variations in angular rate, the actual time between lunations may range from about 29.18 to about 29.93 days. The long-term average duration is 29.5305879814815 days (29 d 12 h 44 min 2.8016 s). The synodic month is used to calculate eclipse cycles.

Month lengths[edit]

Here is a list of the average length of the various astronomical lunar months.[3] These are not constant, so a first-order (linear) approximation of the secular change is provided:

Valid for the epoch J2000.0 (1 January 2000 12:00 TT):

Month type Length in days
anomalistic 27.554549878 − 0.000000010390 × Y
sidereal 27.321661547 + 0.000000001857 × Y
tropical 27.321582241 + 0.000000001506 × Y
draconic 27.212220817 + 0.000000003833 × Y
synodic 29.530588853 + 0.000000002162 × Y

Note: In this table, time is expressed in Ephemeris Time (more precisely Terrestrial Time) with days of 86,400 SI seconds. Y is years since the epoch (2000), expressed in Julian years of 365.25 days. For calendric calculations, one would probably use days measured in the time scale of Universal Time, which follows the somewhat unpredictable rotation of the Earth, and progressively accumulates a difference with ephemeris time called ΔT.

Apart from the long term (millennial) drift in these values, all these periods vary continually around their mean values because of the complex orbital effects of the sun and planets affecting its motion. [4]

Calendrical consequences[edit]

For more details on this topic, see lunar calendar and lunisolar calendar.

At the simplest level, most well-known lunar calendars are based on the initial approximation that 2 lunations last 59 days: a 30 day full month followed by a 29 day hollow month — but this is only roughly accurate, and eventually needs correction by using larger cycles, or the equivalent of leap days. Additionally, the synodic month does not fit easily into the year, which makes accurate, rule-based lunisolar calendars complicated. The most common solution to this problem is the Metonic cycle, which takes advantage of the fact that 235 lunations are approximately 19 tropical years (which add up to not quite 6940 days). However, a Metonic calendar will drift against the seasons by about 1 day every 200 years. Metonic calendars include the calendar used in the Antikythera Mechanism about 2000 years ago, and the Hebrew calendar.

The complexity required in an accurate lunisolar calendar may explain why solar calendars, with months which no longer relate to the phase of the Moon, but are based only on the motion of the Sun against the sky, have generally replaced lunar calendars for civil use in most societies.

Months in various calendars[edit]

Beginning of the lunar month[edit]

The Hellenic calendars, the Hebrew Lunisolar calendar and the Islamic Lunar calendar started the month with the first appearance of the thin crescent of the new moon.

However, the motion of the Moon in its orbit is very complicated and its period is not constant. The date and time of this actual observation depends on the exact geographical longitude as well as latitude, atmospheric conditions, the visual acuity of the observers, etc. Therefore the beginning and lengths of months defined by observation cannot be accurately predicted.

While some like the Jewish Karaites still rely on actual moon observations, most people use the Gregorian solar calendar.

Julian and Gregorian calendars[edit]

The Gregorian calendar, like the Julian calendar before it, has twelve months:

Chronology Alphabetic Days Hours Minutes Seconds
1 January 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
2 February 28 days, 29 in leap years 672 hours, 696 in leap years 40,320 minutes, 41,760 in leap years 2,419,200 seconds, 2,505,600 in leap years
3 March 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
4 April 30 days 720 hours 43,200 minutes 2,592,000 seconds
5 May 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
6 June 30 days 720 hours 43,200 minutes 2,592,000 seconds
7 July 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
8 August 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
9 September 30 days 720 hours 43,200 minutes 2,592,000 seconds
10 October 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
11 November 30 days 720 hours 43,200 minutes 2,592,000 seconds
12 December 31 days 744 hours 44,640 minutes 2,678,400 seconds
One of Wikipedia's sister projects, Wiktionary, provides translations of each of the Gregorian/Julian calendar months into a dozen or more languages. Month-by-month links are provided here: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.
On top of the knuckles (yellow): 31 days
Between the knuckles (blue): 30 days
February (red) has 28 or 29 days.
The white keys of the musical keyboard correlate to months with 31 days. ('F' correlates to January.)

The mean month length of the Gregorian calendar is 30.436875 days.

Months existing in the Roman calendar in the past include:

The famous mnemonic Thirty days hath September is the most[citation needed] common way of teaching the lengths of the months in the English-speaking world.

Also, note that the latter 10 months of the year form a pair of 31-30-31-30-31-day 5-month cycles.

The knuckles of the four fingers of one's hand and the spaces between them can be used to remember the lengths of the months. By making a fist, each month will be listed as one proceeds across the hand. All months landing on a knuckle are 31 days long and those landing between them are not. When the knuckle of the index finger is reached (July), go back to the first knuckle (or over to the first knuckle on the other fist, held next to the first) and continue with August. This physical mnemonic has been taught to primary school students for many decades.[5][6]

This cyclical pattern of month lengths matches the musical keyboard alternation of white and black keys (with the note 'F' correlating to the month of January).

Calends, nones, and ides[edit]

The ides occur on the thirteenth day in eight of the months, but in March, May, July, and October, they occur on the fifteenth. The nones always occur 8 days before the ides, i.e., on the fifth or the seventh. The calends are always the first day of the month.

Hebrew Calendar[edit]

The Hebrew calendar has 12 or 13 months.

  1. Nisan, 30 days ניסן
  2. Iyyar, 29 days אייר
  3. Sivan, 30 days סיון
  4. Tammuz, 29 days תמוז
  5. Av, 30 days אב
  6. Elul, 29 days אלול
  7. Tishri, 30 days תשרי
  8. Heshvan, 29/30 days חשון
  9. Kislev, 29/30 days כסלו
  10. Tevet, 29 days טבת
  11. Shevat, 30 days שבט
  12. Adar 1, 30 days, intercalary month אדר א
  13. Adar 2, 29 days אדר ב

Adar 1 is only added 7 times in 19 years. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar.

Islamic calendar[edit]

There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. They are named as follows:

  1. Muharram (Restricted/sacred) محرّم
  2. Safar (Empty/Yellow) صفر
  3. Rabī' al-Awwal/Rabi' I (First Spring) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabī’ ath-Thānī/Rabi` al-Aakhir/Rabi' II (Second spring or Last spring) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-Awwal/Jumaada I (First Freeze) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada ath-Thānī or Jumādā al-Thānī/Jumādā II (Second Freeze or Last Freeze) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab (To Respect) رجب
  8. Sha'bān (To Spread and Distribute) شعبان
  9. Ramadān (Parched Thirst) رمضان
  10. Shawwāl (To Be Light and Vigorous) شوّال
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah (The Master of Truce) ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah (The Possessor of Hajj) ذو الحجة

See Islamic calendar for more information on the Islamic calendar.

Arabic calendar[edit]

Gregorian month Arabic month
January يناير كانون الثاني Kanun Al-Thani
February فبراير شباط Shebat
March مارس اذار Adhar
April ابريل نيسان Nisan
May مايو أيّار Ayyar
June يونيو حزيران Ḩazayran
July يوليو تمّوز Tammuz
August أغسطس اَب ʕAb
September سبتمبر أيلول Aylul
October أكتوبر تشرين الأول Tishrin Al-Awwal
November نوفمبر تشرين الثاني Tishrin Al-Thani
December ديسمبر كانون الأول Kanun Al-Awwal

Hindu calendar[edit]

The Hindu calendar has various systems of naming the months. The months in the lunar calendar are:

Nepali name Sanskrit name Bengali name Tamil name Telugu name
1 Baisakh (बैशाख) Vaishaakha (वैशाख) *Baishakha (বৈশাখ) Vaikasi (வைகாசி) Vaisaakhamu (వైశాఖము)
2 Jesth (जेष्ठ/जेठ) Jyaishtha (ज्येष्ठ) Jyaishtha (জ্যৈষ্ঠ) Aani (ஆனி) Jyeshttamu (జ్యేష్ఠము)
3 Aasad (आषाढ/असार) Aashaadha (आषाढ़) Ashadha (আষাঢ়) Aadi (ஆடி) Aashaadhamu (ఆషాఢము)
4 Srawan (श्रावण/साउन) Shraavana (श्रावण) Shravana (শ্রাবণ) Aavani (ஆவணி) Sraavanamu (శ్రావణము)
5 Bhadau (भाद्र|भदौ) Bhaadrapada (भाद्रपद) Bhadra (ভাদ্র) Purratasi (புரட்டாசி) Bhaadhrapadamu (భాద్రపదము)
6 Asoj (आश्विन/असोज) Aashvayuja (अश्विन) Ashwina (আশ্বিন) Aiypasi (ஐப்பசி) Aasveeyujamu (ఆశ్వయుజము)
7 Kartik (कार्तिक) Kaartika (कार्तिक) Kartika (কার্তিক) Kaarthigai (கார்த்திகை) Kaarthikamu (కార్తీకము)
8 Mangsir (मार्ग/मंसिर) Maargashiirsha (मार्गशीर्ष) Agrahayana (অগ্রহায়ণ) Maargazhi (மார்கழி) Maargaseershamu (మార్గశిరము)
9 Push (पौष/पुष/पूस) Pausha (पौष) Pausha (পৌষ) Thai (தை) Pushyamu (పుష్యము)
10 Magh (माघ) Maagha (माघ) Magha (মাঘ) Maasi (மாசி) Maakhamu (మాఘము)
11 Falgun (फाल्गुन/फागुन) Phaalguna (फाल्गुन) Phalguna (ফাল্গুন) Panguni (பங்குனி) Phaalgunamu (ఫాల్గుణము)
12 Chaitra (चैत्र/चैत) Chaitra (चैत्र) Chaitra (চৈত্র) Chitirai (சித்திரை) Chaithramu (చైత్రము)

In Bengali reckoning, Baishakha is the first month.

These are also the names used in the Indian national calendar for the newly redefined months.

The names in the solar calendar are just the names of the zodiac sign in which the sun travels. They are

  1. Mesha
  2. Vrishabha
  3. Mithuna
  4. Kataka
  5. Simha
  6. Kanyaa
  7. Tulaa
  8. Vrishcika
  9. Dhanus
  10. Makara
  11. Kumbha
  12. Miina

Bahá'í calendar[edit]

The Bahá'í calendar is the calendar used by the Bahá'í Faith. It is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days), plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years).[7] The months are named after the attributes of God. Days of the year begin and end at sundown.[7]

Iranian calendars (Persian calendars)[edit]

The Iranian / Persian calendar, currently used in Iran and Afghanistan, also has 12 months. The Persian names are included in the parentheses. It begins on the Northern Spring Equinox.

  1. Farvardin (31 days, فروردین)
  2. Ordibehesht (31 days, اردیبهشت)
  3. Khordad (31 days, خرداد)
  4. Tir (31 days, تیر)
  5. Mordad (31 days, مرداد)
  6. Shahrivar (31 days, شهریور)
  7. Mehr (30 days, مهر)
  8. Aban (30 days, آبان)
  9. Azar (30 days, آذر)
  10. Dey (30 days, دی)
  11. Bahman (30 days, بهمن)
  12. Esfand (29 days- 30 days in leap year, اسفند)

Reformed Bengali calendar[edit]

The Bangla Calendar, used in Bangladesh, follows solar months and it has six seasons. The months and seasons in the calendar are:

Grishho (Summer)

  1. Baishakh- 31 days
  2. Jyoishtho- 31 days

Borsha (Rainy)

  1. Aashar- 31 days
  2. Shrabon- 31 days

Sharat (Autumn)

  1. Bhadro- 31 days
  2. Aashwin- 30 days

Hemanta (Late Autumn)

  1. Kartik- 30 days
  2. Aghrahayon- 30 days

Sheeth (Winter)

  1. Poush- 30 days
  2. Magh- 30 days

Bashanta (Spring)

  1. Falgoon- 30 days
  2. Chaitra- 30 days (31 days in leap year)

Nanakshahi calendar[edit]

The months in the Nanakshahi calendar are:[8]

No. Name Punjabi Days Julian months
1 Chet ਚੇਤ 31 14 March – 13 April
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ 31 14 April – 14 May
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ 31 15 May – 14 June
4 Harh ਹਾੜ 31 15 June – 15 July
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ 31 16 July – 15 August
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ 30 16 August – 14 September
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ 30 15 September – 14 October
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ 30 15 October – 13 November
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ 30 14 November – 13 December
10 Poh ਪੋਹ 30 14 December – 12 January
11 Magh ਮਾਘ 30 13 January – 11 February
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ 30/31 12 February – 13 March

Khmer calendar[edit]

Like the Hindu calendar, the Khmer calendar consists of both a lunar calendar and a solar calendar.

The Khmer solar calendar is used more commonly than the lunar calendar. There are 12 months and the numbers of days follow the Julian and Gregorian calendar.

Khmer name Transliteration Julian and Gregorian name
1 មករា Makara January
2 កម្ភៈ Kompeak February
3 មិនា or មីនា Mik Nea or Me Na March
4 មេសា Mesa April
5 ឧសភា Uk Sak Phea May
6 មិថុនា Mik Thok Na June
7 កក្កដា Kak Ka Da July
8 សីហា Seiha August
9 កញ្ញា Kagna September
10 តុលា Tola October
11 វិច្ឆិកា Vicheka November
12 ធ្នូ Thnu December

The Khmer lunar calendar contains 12 months, though, however, the eighth month is divided into 2 months (an embolismic month) in the calendar a few years ago[when?] making 13 months instead of 12 months.

  • មិគសិរ
  • បុស
  • មាគ
  • ផល្គុន
  • ចេត្រ
  • វិសាខ/ ពិសាខ
  • ជេស្ឋ
  • ឤស឵ធ, divided into:
    • បឋមសាធ
    • ទុតិយាសាធ
  • ស្រាពណ៍
  • ភទ្របទ
  • អស្សុច
  • កត្តិក

Thai calendar[edit]

English name Thai name Abbr. Transcription Sanskrit word Zodiac sign
January มกราคม ม.ค. mokarakhom mokara "sea-monster" Capricorn
February กุมภาพันธ์ ก.พ. kumphaphan kumbha "pitcher, water-pot" Aquarius
March มีนาคม มี.ค. minakhom mīna "(a specific kind of) fish" Pisces
April เมษายน เม.ย. mesayon meṣa "ram" Aries
May พฤษภาคม พ.ค. phruetsaphakhom vṛṣabha "bull" Taurus
June มิถุนายน มิ.ย. mithunayon mithuna "a pair" Gemini
July กรกฎาคม ก.ค. karakadakhom karkaṭa "crab" Cancer
August สิงหาคม ส.ค. singhakhom siṃha "lion" Leo
September กันยายน ก.ย. kanyayon kanyā "girl" Virgo
October ตุลาคม ต.ค. tulakhom tulā "balance" Libra
November พฤศจิกายน พ.ย. phruetsachikayon vṛścika "scorpion" Scorpio
December ธันวาคม ธ.ค. thanwakhom dhanu "bow, arc" Sagittarius

Tongan calendar[edit]

The Tongan calendar are based on the cycles of the moon around the earth in one year. The months are:

  1. Liha Mu'a
  2. Liha Mui
  3. Vai Mu'a
  4. Vai Mui
  5. Faka'afu Mo'ui
  6. Faka'afu Mate
  7. Hilinga Kelekele
  8. Hilinga Mea'a
  9. 'Ao'ao
  10. Fu'ufu'unekinanga
  11. 'Uluenga
  12. Tanumanga
  13. 'O'oamofanongo

Kollam era (Malayalam) calendar[edit]

Main article: kollam era
Malayalam name Transliteration Concurrent Gregorian months Sanskrit word and meaning Zodiac sign
ചിങ്ങം chi-ngnga-m August–September simha "lion" Leo
കന്നി ka-nni September–October kanyā "girl" Virgo
തുലാം thu-lā-m October–November tulā "balance" Libra
വൃശ്ചികം vRSh-chi-ka-m November–December vṛścika "scorpion" Scorpio
ധനു dha-nu December–January dhanu "bow, arc" Sagittarius
മകരം ma-ka-ra-m January–February mokara "sea-monster" Capricorn
കുംഭം kum-bha-m February–March kumbha "pitcher, water-pot" Aquarius
മീനം mee-na-m March–April mīna "(a specific kind of) fish" Pisces
മേടം mE-Da-m April–May meṣa "ram" Aries
ഇടവം i-Ta-va-m May - June vṛṣabha "bull" Taurus
മിഥുനം mi-thu-na-m June–July mithuna "a pair" Gemini
കർക്കടകം kar-kka-Ta-ka-m July-august karkaṭa "crab" Cancer

Sinhala calendar[edit]

The Sinhala calendar is the Buddhist calendar in Sri Lanka with Sinhala names. Each full moon Poya day marks the start of a Buddhist lunar month.[9] The first month is Vesak.[10] The Sinhala and Tamil New Year Day is the start of the Hindu solar calendar (usually 14 April), an event unrelated to the Buddhist calendar.

  1. Duruthu (දුරුතු)
  2. Navam (නවම්)
  3. Medin (මැදින්)
  4. Bak (බක්)
  5. Vesak (වෙසක්)
  6. Poson (පොසොන්)
  7. Esala (ඇසල)
  8. Nikini (නිකිණි)
  9. Binara (බිනර)
  10. Vap (වප්)
  11. Il (iL) (ඉල්)
  12. Unduvap (උඳුවප්)

Germanic calendar[edit]

Main article: Germanic calendar

The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months". The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same weekday rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always starts on a Friday sometime between January 19 and January 25 (Old style: January 9 to January 15), Góa always starts on a Sunday between February 18 and February 24 (Old style: February 8 to February 14).

  • Skammdegi ("Short days")
  1. Gormánuður (mid October - mid November, "slaughter month" or "Gór's month")
  2. Ýlir (mid November - mid December, "Yule month")
  3. Mörsugur (mid December - mid January, "fat sucking month")
  4. Þorri (mid January - mid February, "frozen snow month")
  5. Góa (mid February - mid March, "Góa's month, see Nór")
  6. Einmánuður (mid March - mid April, "lone" or "single month")
  • Náttleysi ("Nightless days")
  1. Harpa (mid April - mid May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as Sumardagurinn fyrsti - first day of summer)
  2. Skerpla (mid May - mid June, another forgotten goddess)
  3. Sólmánuður (mid June - mid July, "sun month")
  4. Heyannir (mid July - mid August, "hay business month")
  5. Tvímánuður (mid August - mid September, "two" or "second month")
  6. Haustmánuður (mid September - mid October, "autumn month")

Old Georgian calendar[edit]

Main article: Georgian calendar
Month Georgian Month Name Transliteration Meaning
January აპნისი Apnisi
February სურწყუნისი Surtskunisi
March მირკანი Mirkani
April იგრიკა Igrika
May ვარდობისთვე Vardobistve Month of Roses
June თიბათვე Tibatve
July მკათათვე Mkatatve
August მარიამობისთვე Mariamobistve Month of Virgin Mary
September ახალწლისა ენკენისთვე Akhaltslisa Enkenistve Month of New Year*
October ღვინობისთვე Gvinobistve Month of Wine
November გიორგობისთვე Giorgobistve Month of Saint George
December ქრისტეშობისთვე Kristeshobistve Month of Christmas

*NOTE: New Year in ancient Georgia started from September.

Old Swedish calendar[edit]

  1. Torsmånad (January, 'Torre´s month' (ancient god))
  2. Göjemånad (February, 'Goe´s month' (ancient goddess))
  3. Vårmånad (March, 'Spring month')
  4. Gräsmånad (April, 'Grass month')
  5. Blomstermånad (May, 'Bloom month')
  6. Sommarmånad (June, 'Summer month')
  7. Hömånad (July, 'Hay month')
  8. Skördemånad, Rötmånad (August, 'Harvest month' or 'Rotten month')
  9. Höstmånad (September, 'Fall month')
  10. Slaktmånad (October, 'Slaughter month')
  11. Vintermånad (November, 'Winter month')
  12. Julmånad (December, 'Yule month')

Old English calendar[edit]

Like the Old Norse calendar, the Anglo-Saxons had their own calendar before they were Christianized which reflected native traditions and deities. These months were attested by Bede in his work On Chronology written in the 8th century.[11] His months are probably those as written in the Northumbrian dialect of Old English which he was familiar with. The months were so named after the moon; the new moon marking the end of an old month and start of a new month; the full moon occurring in the middle of the month, after which the month was named.

  1. Æfterra-ġēola mōnaþ (January, 'After-Yule month')
  2. Sol-mōnaþ (February, 'Sol month')
  3. Hreþ-mōnaþ (March, 'Hreth month')
  4. Ēostur-mōnaþ (April, 'Ēostur month')
  5. Ðrimilce-mōnaþ (May, 'Three-milkings month')
  6. Ærra-Liþa (June, 'Ere-Litha')
  7. Æftera-Liþa (July, 'After-Litha')
  8. Wēod-mōnaþ (August, 'Weed month')
  9. Hāliġ-mōnaþ or Hærfest-mōnaþ (September, 'Holy month' or 'Harvest month')
  10. Winter-fylleþ (October, 'Winter-filleth')
  11. Blōt-mōnaþ (November, 'Blót month')
  12. Ærra-ġēola mōnaþ (December, 'Ere-Yule')

Old Hungarian calendar[edit]

Nagyszombati kalendárium (in Latin: Calendarium Tyrnaviense) from 1579. Historically Hungary used a 12-month calendar that appears to have been zodiacal in nature[12] but eventually came to correspond to the Gregorian months as shown below:[13]

  1. Boldogasszony hava (January, 'month of the happy/blessed lady')
  2. Böjtelő hava (February, 'month of early fasting/Lent' or 'month before fasting/Lent')
  3. Böjtmás hava (March, 'second month of fasting/Lent')
  4. Szent György hava (April, 'Saint George's month')
  5. Pünkösd hava (May, 'Pentecost month')
  6. Szent Iván hava (June, 'Saint John [the Baptist]'s month')
  7. Szent Jakab hava (July, 'Saint James' month')
  8. Kisasszony hava (August, 'month of the Virgin')
  9. Szent Mihály hava (September, 'Saint Michael's month')
  10. Mindszent hava (October, 'all saints' month')
  11. Szent András hava (November, 'Saint Andrew's month')
  12. Karácsony hava (December, 'month of Yule/Christmas')

Old Egyptian calendar[edit]

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days (epagomenes) at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events "wandered" through the calendar, it is referred to as Annus Vagus or "Wandering Year".

  1. Thout
  2. Paopi
  3. Hathor
  4. Koiak
  5. Tooba
  6. Emshir
  7. Paremhat
  8. Paremoude
  9. Pashons
  10. Paoni
  11. Epip
  12. Mesori

Nisga'a calendar[edit]

The Nisga'a Calendar coincides with the Gregorian Calendar with each month referring to the type of Harvesting that is done during the month.[citation needed]

  1. K'aliiyee = Going North - referring to the Sun returning to its usual place in the sky
  2. Buxwlaks = Needles Blowing About - February is usually a very windy month in the Nass River Valley
  3. Xsaak = To Eat Oolichans - Oolichans are harvested during this month
  4. Mmaal = Canoes - The river has defrosted, hence canoes are used once more
  5. Yansa'alt = Leaves are Blooming - Warm weather has arrived and leaves on the trees begin to bloom
  6. Miso'o = Sockeye - majority of Sockeye Salmon runs begin this month
  7. Maa'y = Berries - berry picking season
  8. Wii Hoon = Great Salmon - referring to the abundance of Salmon that are now running
  9. Genuugwwikw = Trail of the Marmot - Marmots, Ermines and animals as such are hunted
  10. Xlaaxw = To Eat Trout - trout are mostly eaten this time of year
  11. Gwilatkw = To Blanket - The earth is "blanketed" with snow
  12. Luut'aa = Sit In - the Sun "sits" in one spot for a period of time

French Republican calendar[edit]

This calendar was proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793. There were twelve months of 30 days each, grouped into three ten-day weeks called décades. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a Franciade. It began at the autumn equinox:

  • Autumn:
  1. Vendémiaire
  2. Brumaire
  3. Frimaire
  • Winter:
  1. Nivôse
  2. Pluviôse
  3. Ventôse
  • Spring:
  1. Germinal
  2. Floréal
  3. Prairial
  • Summer:
  1. Messidor
  2. Thermidor
  3. Fructidor

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Linton, Christopher M. (2004). From Eudoxus to Einstein: a history of mathematical astronomy. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. "In medieval times, the part of the Moon's orbit south of the ecliptic was known as the 'dragon' (which devoured the Moon during eclipses) and from this we get the terminology 'dragon's head' for the ascending node and 'dragon's tail' for the descending node. … The periods between successive nodes has, over time, been termed the dracontic, draconic and draconitic month, the words deriving from the Greek for 'dragon'." 
  2. ^ Lockyer, Sir Norman (1870). Elements of Astronomy: Accompanied with Numerous Illustrations, a Colored Representations of the Solar, Stellar, and Nebular Spectra, and Celestial Charts of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. American Book Company. p. 223. Retrieved 10 February 2014. "The nodical month is the time in which the Moon accomplishes a revolution with respect to her nodes, the line of which is also movable." 
  3. ^ Derived from ELP2000-85: M. Chapront-Touzé, J. Chapront (1991): Lunar tables and programs from 4000 B. C. to A. D. 8000. Willmann-Bell, Richmond VA; ISBN 0-943396-33-6
  4. ^ http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEhelp/moonorbit.html
  5. ^ Days in each Month - Mnemonics to improve memory
  6. ^ The Boy Mechanic: A Handy Calendar (1913) from Project Gutenberg
  7. ^ a b Esslemont, J. E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-87743-160-4. 
  8. ^ "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  9. ^ Sri Lanka – Festival Calendar
  10. ^ The Significance of Poya
  11. ^ The Old English Calendar
  12. ^ The Calendar by Marsigli: the ancient Hungarian Calendar
  13. ^ Hónapok nevei