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The concentrate of the ore is mixed with water and then pumped over a long distance to a port where it can be shipped for further processing. At the end of the pipeline, the material is separated from the slurry in a filter press to remove the water. This water is usually subjected to a waste treatment process before disposal or return to the mine. Slurry pipelines offer an economic advantage over railroad transport and much less noise disturbance to the environment, particularly when mines are in extremely remote areas.
Pipelines must be suitably engineered to resist abrasion from the solids as well as corrosion from the soil. Some of these pipelines are lined with high-density polyethylene (HDPE).
Slurry pipelines are also used to transport tailings from a mineral processing plant after the ore has been processed in order to dispose of the remaining rocks or clays.
The 85 km Savage River Slurry pipeline in Tasmania, Australia, was possibly the world's first slurry pipeline when it was built in 1967. It includes a 366m bridge span at 167m above the Savage River. It carries iron ore slurry from the Savage River open cut mine owned by Australian Bulk Minerals and was still operational as of 2011.
One of the longest slurry pipelines was to be the proposed ETSI pipeline, to transport coal over a distance of 1036 miles (1675 km). It was never commissioned. It is anticipated that in the next few years some long distance slurry pipelines will be constructed in Australia and South America where mineral deposits are often a few hundred kilometers away from shipping ports.
Slurry pipelines are also being considered to de-silt or remove silts from deposits behind dams in man-made lakes. After the Hurricane Katrina disaster there were proposals to remedy the environment by pumping silt to the shore. Proposals have also been made to de-silt Lake Nubia-Nasser in Egypt and Sudan by slurry pipelines, as Egypt is now deprived of 95% of its alluvium, which used to arrive every year. These projects to remedy the environment might alleviate one of the major problems associated with large dams and man-made lakes.
Essar Steel India limited owns two 250 km+ slurry pipelines in India. 1. Kirandul-Vishkhapatnam slurry pipeline. 2. Dabuna - Paradeep pipeline.
- Hydraulic Transport of Coal in Combination With Oil Granulation / V.Biletsky // 8th International Conference on “Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles” 24-26 January 1995, Pragye, Czech Republic. D6-1 – D6-11.
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