Snatch (weightlifting)

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Snatch is the first of two lifts contested in the sport of weightlifting (also known as olympic weightlifting) followed by the clean and jerk. The objective of the snatch is to lift the barbell from the ground to overhead in one continuous motion. There are four main styles of snatch used: squat snatch (or full snatch), split snatch, power snatch, and muscle snatch. The squat snatch and split snatch are the most common styles used in competition while power snatch and muscle snatch are mostly used for training purposes. In the squat snatch, the lifter lifts the bar as high as possible and pulls themselves under it in a squat position, receiving the bar overhead with the arms straight, decreasing the necessary height of the bar, therefore increasing the amount of weight that the lifter may successfully lift. In the split snatch, the lifter lifts the bar as high as possible and pulls themselves under the bar similar to the squat snatch but in the split snatch the lifter "splits" their legs, placing one foot in front of them and one behind, allowing themselves to receive the bar lower as in the squat snatch. The split snatch has become much less common with the increased popularity of the squat snatch but is occasionally performed by some lifters. In the power snatch, the lifter lifts the barbell as high as possible and receives the bar overhead with only a slight bend in the knee and hip, increasing the height that the bar must be lifted and decreasing the amount of weight that may be successfully lifted. In the muscle snatch, the lifer lifts the bar all the way overhead with arms locked out and the hip and knee fully extended.

Breakdown of the Six Phases of the Snatch[edit]

While the snatch is commonly referred to in three phases, Arthur Drechsler identifies six distinct phases of the pull in the snatch.

First Phase

The lifter begins the first phase of the pull, or "Pre-lift off", with the feet placed approximately hip width apart, toes turned out slightly with the bar above the midfoot. The shins will be inclined toward the bar so that the shin is touching or close to the bar. Hips are placed so that the top of the thigh is approximately parrallel to the ground but may also be slightly higher or lower depending on the lifer.[1] The lifters back should be straight, no excessive curvature or rounding in the lumbar spine, with slight extension of the thoracic spine and shoulders slightly pulled back.[1] The shoulders should be positioned so that they are directly over or slightly forward of the bar.[1] The bar is gripped with a very wide grip. The neck should be positioned in line with the torso or slightly more vertical. During the first pull, the lifter begins to exert force on the bar, separating the weight from the platform.[1]

Second Phase.

The second phase of the pull, or "preliminary acceleration" begins with the weight separated from the floor. In the second phase, the lifter begins by extending the knee and moving the hip upward while maintaining a constant back angle relative to the floor.[1] During this phase, the lifter pulls the bar closer to their body and their center of gravity of the lifter shifts toward the heel.[1] During this phase, the lifter begins to accelerate the bar and towards the end of the phase, the torso begins to assume a more vertical position.

Third Phase

During the third phase, or "adjustment phase", the lifter begins to position their body appropriately for the final explosive pull. The knees typically perform a "double knee bend", where the knee bends from the previous extension of thee knee during the second phase, and the torso continues to become more vertical.[1] During this phase, the lifter doesn't apply as great a force on the bar as in the previous phases.[1]

Fourth Phase

During the fourth phase of the pull, or "final acceleration" the lifter performs the final acceleration on the bar. This is executed by explosively extending the hip, knee, and ankles (or plantar-flexing), followed by an upward elevation of the shoulders (the "shrug").[1] The lifter brings their feet off of the ground and moves them into the squat position as a result of this phase. The lifters torso will usually lean slightly backwards during this phase, and the bar is accelerated upward with a slightly arced trajectory.[1]

Fifth Phase

The fifth phase of the pull, or "unsupported squat phase", occurs when the lifter has fully extended their knees, hips, and ankle, and begins to move downward into the squat position.[1]

Sixth Phase

The sixth phase, or supported squat under, occurs when the lifters feet have landed flatfooted on the platform and the lifter pulls themselves into a squat position. The lifter then receives the bar overhead with the arms completely straight. From this position, the lifter recovers by squatting the weight to a fully erect position while maintaining the bar position overhead.[1]

World Records
[2] Men

Weight Class Name Lift
56 kg Halil Mutlu 138 kg
62 kg Kim Un Guk 154 kg
69 kg Georgi Markov 165 kg
77 kg Lu Xiaojun 176 kg
85 kg Andrei Rybakou 187 kg
94 kg Akakios Kakiasvilis 188 kg
105 kg Andrei Aramnau 200 kg
105+ kg Behdad Salimi 214 kg

Women

Weight Class Name Lift
48 kg Yang Lian Example
53 kg Li Ping Example
58 kg Chen Yanqing Example
63 kg Deng Wei Example
69 kg Liu Chunhong Example
75 kg Natalya Zabolotnaya Example
75+ kg Tatiana Kashirina Example

Applications of the snatch to sport training

The snatch is also commonly used as a tool for training athletes in a variety of sports especially with athletes in sports where powerful full body movement is required such as throwing, sprinting, running, and jumping. The triple-extension in the snatch (simultaneous extension of the knee and hip, and plantar flexion at the ankle) mimics the movements previously mentioned while requiring the athlete to produce large amounts of power at high velocities. The snatch has an average velocity of 1.52-1.67 m/s,.[3] This makes it a quality lift for training speed-strength in which the athlete aims to move a light weight (25-40% 1RM) at it's fastest velocity (1.1 m/s-1.65 m/s)[3]

Heaviest snatch ever[edit]

The heaviest snatch ever in IWF competition was 216 kg achieved by Antonio Krastev on 9/13/1987 in Ostrava during the World Championships, although this record is no longer official due to the restructuring of the weight classes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Drechsler, Arthur (1998). The Weightlifting Encyclopedia: A Guide to World Class Performance. Flushing, NY: A is A Communication. pp. 23–28. ISBN 0965917924. 
  2. ^ "World Records". International Weightlifting Federation. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Ajhan, T; Lazar, Baroga (1988). Weightlifting: Fitness For all Sports. Budapest, Hungary: Budapest International Weightlifting Federation. ISBN 9632538072. 

External links[edit]