||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (April 2010)|
|An orange roan Spinone Italiano.|
Italian Wire-haired Pointer
Italian Coarsehaired Pointer
|Country of origin||Italy|
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Spinone Italiano (Italian pronunciation: [spiˈnoːne itaˈljaːno][note 1]) is an Italian dog breed. It was originally bred as a versatile gun dog. To this day, the breed still masters that purpose. The Spinone is a loyal, friendly and alert dog with a close lying, wiry coat. It is an ancient breed that can be traced back to approximately 500 BC.
It is traditionally used for hunting, pointing, and retrieving game (HPR), but, in addition to that purpose, the intelligent and strong Spinone may be practically anything ranging from a companion to an assistance dog.
The Spinone has a square build (the length of the body is approximately equal to the height at the withers). It is a strong-boned, solidly built dog with a well-muscled body and limbs that are suited to almost any kind of terrain. A brown and white Spinone can sometimes be confused with a German Wirehaired Pointer by someone unfamiliar with the breeds. However, the long head and pronounced occipital are unique to the breed. He has an expression that shows intelligence and understanding and is often described as having human-like eyes. The tail of the Spinone is customarily docked at half its length (approx 5.5 to 8 inches or 140 to 200 mm from the base of the tail), Even as adults, Spinoni retain disproportionate, puppy-like, webbed paws which make them powerful swimmers.
The coat is tough, slightly wiry, and close fitting. The preferred length is 1.5 to 2.5 in (3.8 to 6.4 cm) on the body; however, the ears, muzzle, head, and parts of the legs and feet are covered with shorter hair. Eyebrows have longer and stiffer hair; longer but softer hair covers cheeks and muzzle, creating a profuse moustache and beard.
The Spinone should not have an undercoat. A long, soft or silky coat is undesired and is a sign of excessive grooming.
Acceptable variants (UK and US) are solid white, white with orange markings, orange roan with or without orange markings, white with brown markings, and brown roan with or without brown markings. Pigment of skin, nose, lips, and the pads on their feet should be a fleshy red-orange in white dogs, slightly darker in orange and brown roan dogs. The white and orange coloration is unique amongst the wire-haired gun dogs.
Height and weight
Height at withers:
- Dogs: 60 to 70 cm (24 to 28 in).
Weight should be in the correct proportion to size and structure:
- Dogs: 34 to 39 kg (75 to 86 lb).
The Spinone is easy going, docile, and affectionate towards both people and dogs. It is well known for being loving and gentle with children. Its extremely patient nature also helps with this, but children should be taught not to take advantage of this trait. It is loyal to those it knows and still friendly to those it does not. The breed is not known for any aggression and is therefore not a wise choice for somebody looking for an aggressive guard dog.
Centuries of working with man as a hunting companion has created a loyal, intelligent dog that is easily trained, although some can be stubborn about performing a learned task if they see no point in it. Because they are sensitive, motivational training works best for this breed, as this gentle creature's feelings can easily be hurt when handled incorrectly.
The Spinone can be a very active breed, but it is not a racy dog like most other hunting breeds. The Spinone typically moves at the relaxed trot that is characteristic of the breed. It has often been called the perfect dog to run or jog with, because it will not run off in front and leave its human companion struggling to keep up as it prefers the slower pace itself. It can be more than happy in a small yard and does not necessarily need acres of land. The small garden combined with regular walks would suit a Spinone well.
In part due to its long beard and lip folds, the Spinone can have a tendency to slobber.
Known medical issues
- Cerebellar ataxia: Cerebellar ataxia (CA) is a deadly hereditary condition that is known to affect Spinone puppies. It is a recessive gene; therefore, both sire and dam must have been carriers for any pup in a litter to have this condition. No puppy with CA has lived past the age of 12 months to date. Most puppies that have been diagnosed with the condition are euthanised at 10–11 months. However, the AHT (UK) has developed a test for this condition. Carriers can now be identified to a 95% certainty.
- Hip dysplasia: Like most large breeds, the Spinone can suffer hip dysplasia. This is when the hip bones develop abnormally. Abnormal joint motion causes early onset arthritis and makes it difficult and painful to do any exercise. If caught before 16 weeks hip dysplasia can often be surgically corrected. Dogs diagnosed with severe hip dysplasia later in life can have their ball and socket joint replaced surgically with an artificial joint.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2010)|
The breed is believed to have been developed in the Piedmont region of Italy. As the Spinone is a very ancient breed (it is believed to be one of the oldest gun dogs in existence), it is not known exactly what the origins of the breed are; there are many different theories. Some of these claim that the Spinone could have originated in Italy, France, Spain, Russia, Greece, or Celtic Ireland.
Some people familiar with the history of the breed claim that the Spinone descended from the now-extinct Spanish Pointer, whilst others claim that it was the ancient Russian Setter that is responsible for the breed we know today. An even more popular theory is that Greek traders brought coarse-haired setters to Italy during the height of the Roman empire, where the dogs were then crossed with various others and the modern Spinone eventually emerged.
The French claim that the Spinone has descended from crosses of several French pointing breeds, whilst the Italians believe the Spinone is the ancestor of the Wirehaired Pointing Griffon, the German Wirehaired Pointer, and the Pudelpointer. Any one of these claims could be true; perhaps several of them are correct.
During the Second World War, the Spinone became close to extinct. Both the war and the fact that Italian hunters had begun using other breeds (such as setters, pointers, and spaniels) in the hunt, whereas before it was primarily the Spinone. Many breeders had to resort to crossing the Spinone with other wire-haired breeds, such as the Boulet, Wirehaired Pointing Griffon and German Wirehaired Pointer.
The breed was not officially known as "Spinone" until the early 19th century. Before then, some areas knew the breed as the "Spinoso". The breed may have been named after an Italian thorn bush, the spino, which was a favorite hiding place for small game because for larger animals it was practically impenetrable. Only thick-skinned, coarse-haired animals could fight through the branches unharmed to locate the game. The Spinone was the breed most capable of doing so, and, perhaps, therefore the name was formed.
Today the Bracco Italiano is the most popular hunting dog in Italy, although the Spinone is still common. The Bracco is a racier, higher energy dog, while the Spinone excels at hunting close or in dense cover, and in retrieving from water.
- The plural Italian form is Spinoni Italiani pronounced [spiˈnoːni itaˈljaːni].
- Italian Griffon breed description at the Italian federation (ENCI).
- The American Kennel Club official site
- The Italian Spinone Club of Great Britain
- The Spinone Club of America
- Italian Spinone Sculpture
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spinone Italiano.|
- Larkin, Dr. Peter and Stockman, Mike (2003). The ultimate encyclopedia of dogs, dog breeds & dog care. Hermes House. ISBN 1-84309-128-3.