Strophanthus

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Strophanthus
Strophanthus preussi0.jpg
Strophanthus preussii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Strophanthus
DC., 1802
Synonyms[1]
  • Cercocoma Wall. ex G.Don
  • Christya Ward & Harv.
  • Faskia Lour. ex B.A.Gomes
  • Roupalia T.Moore & Ayres
  • Roupellia Wall. & Hook. ex Benth.
  • Roupellina (Baill.) Pichon
  • Zygonerion Baill.

Strophanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae, first described as a genus in 1802. It is native primarily to tropical Africa, extending to South Africa, with a few species in Asia, from southern India to New Guinea and southern China.[1] The name (strophos anthos, "twisted cord flower") derives from the long twisted threadlike segments of the corolla, which in one species (S. preussii) attain a length of 30–35 cm.

The genus includes vines, shrubs and small trees. The leaves are opposite or whorled, simple broad lanceolate, 2–20 cm long, with an entire margin.

Several of the African tribes used Strophanthus as the principal ingredient in arrow poison. Plants from this genus produce toxic alkaloids and cardiac glycosides g-strophanthin (syn. ouabain), k-strophanthin and e-strophanthin. As ordinarily administered, the drug acts on the heart before influencing any other organ or tissue. Often indeed no other action can be observed. It is used to produce the drug Ouabain which was taken as a cardiac stimulant to treat heart failure, and is similar to the drug Digoxin produced from Digitalis purpurea.

Species[1]
  1. Strophanthus amboensis - Zaïre to Namibia
  2. Strophanthus arnoldianus - Zaïre
  3. Strophanthus barteri - Liberia to Gabon
  4. Strophanthus bequaertii - E Zaïre, Rwanda, SW Uganda
  5. Strophanthus boivinii - Madagascar
  6. Strophanthus bullenianus - Zaïre to Nigeria
  7. Strophanthus caudatus - S China, SE Asia, New Guinea
  8. Strophanthus congoensis - Zaïre to Cameroon
  9. Strophanthus courmontii - Kenya to Zimbabwe
  10. Strophanthus demeusei - Zaïre
  11. Strophanthus divaricatus - S China, Vietnam, Laos
  12. Strophanthus eminii - Zaïre, Zambia, Tanzania
  13. Strophanthus gardeniiflorus - S Zaïre, N Zambia, E Angola
  14. Strophanthus gerrardii - Mozambique, Swaziland, NE South Africa
  15. Strophanthus gracilis - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon
  16. Strophanthus gratus - Zaïre to Senegal
  17. Strophanthus hispidus - Senegal to Uganda to Angola
  18. Strophanthus holosericeus - S Zaïre, N Zambia
  19. Strophanthus hypoleucos - Mozambique, Tanzania
  20. Strophanthus kombe - Kenya to Namibia
  21. Strophanthus ledienii - W Zaïre, NW Angola
  22. Strophanthus luteolus - Mozambique, South Africa
  23. Strophanthus mirabilis - Somalia, Kenya
  24. Strophanthus mortehanii - Zaïre to Cameroon
  25. Strophanthus nicholsonii - Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  26. Strophanthus parviflorus - Cameroon to Angola
  27. Strophanthus perakensis - Indochina, Perak in Malaysia
  28. Strophanthus petersianus - Kenya to KwaZulu-Natal
  29. Strophanthus preussii - Liberia to Tanzania to Angola
  30. Strophanthus puberulus - Sumbawa in Indonesia
  31. Strophanthus sarmentosus - Liberia to Uganda to Angola
  32. Strophanthus singaporianus - W Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo
  33. Strophanthus speciosus - South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe
  34. Strophanthus thollonii - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Ivory Coast†
  35. Strophanthus vanderijstii - Zaïre, Angola
  36. Strophanthus wallichii - S China, Himalayas, Indochina, W Malaysia
  37. Strophanthus welwitschii - Tanzania to Angola
  38. Strophanthus wightianus - S India
  39. Strophanthus zimmermannianus - Kenya, Tanzania
formerly included in genus[1]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Retrieved May 17, 2014. 

External links[edit]