Abdul Samad of Selangor

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For the building in Kuala Lumpur, see Sultan Abdul Samad Building.
Sultan Abdul Samad
Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor.JPG
Reign 6 January 1857 - 6 February 1898
Coronation 6 January 1857
Full name Almarhum Sultan Sir Abdul Samad ibni Almarhum Raja Abdullah
Titles Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG)
Born 1804
Birthplace Bukit Melawati, Selangor
Died 6 February 1898
Place of death Jugra, Selangor
Predecessor Muhammad Shah
Raja Muda Musa Abdul Samad
Successor Sulaiman Shah Musa
Wives Che Puan Selangor
Atfah Binti Muhammad Shah
Issue

Raja Tipah
Raja Munah
Raja Muda Musa
Raja Abu Nusah
Raja Arfah
Raja Yaakub
Raja Montel
Raja Nong Shah
Raja Mahmud
Raja Daud
Raja Abdul Kahar

Raja Alfah
Father Raja Abdullah Ibrahim Shah, Tengku Panglima Besar of Selangor

Sultan Abdul Samad, KCMG (Almarhum Sultan Sir Abdul Samad ibni Almarhum Raja Abdullah; 1804 - 6 February 1898) was the fourth Sultan of Selangor.

Abdul Samad was born in 1804 at Bukit Melawati in Selangor to Raja Abdullah ibni Ibrahim Shah, younger brother of Sultan Muhammad Shah. His reign lasted 41 years from 1857 until his death in 1898. His time on the throne saw the only civil war in Selangor, the establishment of Kuala Lumpur,[1][2] the introduction of the Selangor flag and coat of arms[3] and the start of British involvement in Selangor state affairs.[4]

Rise to the throne[edit]

Before becoming the Sultan of Selangor, Abdul Samad held the title of Tengku Panglima Raja and held authority over Langat.[5] The third sultan of Selangor, Sultan Muhammad Shah, died on 6 January 1857 without appointing an heir. This started a dispute between the royal court and dignitaries of Selangor to choose the next sultan. To select the next sultan Malay customs dictate that the son of a royal wife takes precedence over the sons of other wives. This makes Raja Mahmud the next legitimate heir but he was too young and was unable to exert his right. Sultan Muhammad's older and more competent sons, Raja Laut and Raja Sulaiman were sons of concubines, the Sultan's sons-in-law, Raja Jumaat and Raja Abdullah, were from the Riau branch of the family, hence they were all ineligible. This left Raja Abdul Samad, the nephew and son-in-law of the late Sultan, as the candidate with the strongest contention.[4][6] Raja Jumaat and Raja Abdullah became convinced that they could become the power behind the throne if they supported Raja Abdul Samad to take the throne. With their patronage and the support of four other state dignitaries, a consensus was made to select the nephew of Sultan Muhammad Shah, Raja Abdul Samad Raja Abdullah.[7]

Other sources state that Selangor went on for two years without a sultan until he was favoured[8] and that, unlike his predecessors, he was not formally installed by the Sultan of Perak.[6]

Reign[edit]

Following the successful establishment of the Ampang tin mines by Muhamad Shah, Sultan Abdul Samad used the tin ore to trade with the states of the Straits Settlements. The mines in turn attracted even more Chinese miners[8] with the help of Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, one of his son-in-laws and Yap Ah Loy, a Chinese Kapitan.

In 1866, the Sultan gave Raja Abdullah the power and authority over Klang. This fueled the feud between Raja Abdullah and Raja Mahadi, who was the previous administrator of Klang. The dispute led to the Klang War. The Sultan appointed his son-in-law, Tengku Dhiauddin Zainal Rashid (a.k.a. Tengku Kudin), as Vice Yamtuan and arbitrator twice during the war; first on 26 June 1868 and again on 22 July 1871.[9][10][11] At the same time he handed over management of the entire state. He also provided Langat to Tengku Kudin to help him fund the handling of the war. Tengku Kudin in turn engaged the help of Pahang, mercenaries and Sir Andrew Clarke of the British Empire. This marked the first British involvement in local politics. The Sultan later handed over the ruling power of Klang to Tungku Kudin after the war was won in 1874. In 1878 Tengku Kudin stood down from this post.[12][13][14]

Sultan Abdul Samad attended the First Malay Rulers Durbar held in Kuala Kangsar.

After a number of piracy attacks took place in Selangor, Andrew Clarke assigned Frank Swettenham as a live-in advisor to Sultan Abdul Samad in August 1874. Sultan Abdul Samad accepted James Guthrie Davidson as the first British Resident of Selangor in 1875. In October the same year, Sultan Abdul Samad sent a letter to Andrew Clarke requesting for Selangor to be placed under the British protectorate.[15][16]

During his reign, the areas of Semenyih, Beranang and Broga went under Selangor jurisdiction. Lukut however was handed to Dato' Kelana of Sungai Ujong on 30 July 1880.[17] The Sultan was awarded the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) conferring the title Sir. Jugra became the royal capital of Selangor when Sultan Abdul Samad built the Jugra Palace and moved there in 1875. The state capital was moved from Klang to Kuala Lumpur in 1880.

In 1893, he helped found one of Malaysia's premier schools, Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur along with Kapitan Yap Kwan Seng, K. Thamboosamy and Loke Yew. Sultan Abdul Samad was made one of the first two patrons of the school.[18]

Sultan Abdul Samad was a member of the Council of Rulers for the Federated Malay States, under the British colonial regime. The sultans of the four Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Pahang were represented at the first Durbar, which convened in 1897 at Kuala Kangsar, Perak.

Sultan Abdul Samad interacted openly with his people as observers noted that he mingled by chatting in local markets, while taking his daily walks or while watching a cockfight.[16]

Death[edit]

Sultan Abdul Samad died on 6 February 1898 at the age of 93 after reigning for 41 years. He was laid to rest in his own mausoleum in Jugra.[8] He had 12 children, 6 princes and 6 princesses from two wives.[19] Raja Muda Musa, the heir apparent, died in 1884. Due to this the next in line is Raja Muda Musa's eldest son, Sulaiman Shah Musa.

Legacy[edit]

The Sultan Abdul Samad Building in Kuala Lumpur, Sultan Abdul Samad Secondary School in Petaling Jaya, Sultan Abdul Samad Mosque in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) and the Sultan Abdul Samad Library in Universiti Putra Malaysia are named after him.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kuala Lumpur History". Web Sawadee PCL. 2005. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  2. ^ "Kuala Lumpur History". Asia Web Direct. 2009. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  3. ^ "Makna Bendera Negeri Selangor". Selangor State Government. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  4. ^ a b "Kemangkatan Sultan Muhammad Shah Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  5. ^ "Kemangkatan Sultan Abdul Samad Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 8 November 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  6. ^ a b "The History of Yap Ah Loy - The Death of Sultan Muhammad". Kongsi NetWorks. Tripod. September 12, 2000. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  7. ^ "Perlantikan Sultan Abdul Samad sebagai Sultan Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  8. ^ a b c "Salasilah kesultanan Selangor mulai 1756". Selangor state government website. 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  9. ^ "Sultan Abdul Samad memberi kuasa kepada menantunya Tengku Kudin". National Archives of Malaysia. 15 October 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  10. ^ "Selangor Sultanate - the History". Irfan Nughoro. Melayu Online, Indonesia. 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  11. ^ "Perlantikan semula Tengku Kudin sebagai wakil Yamtuan Negeri Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  12. ^ "Tengku Kudin meninggal dunia". National Archives of Malaysia. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  13. ^ "Raja Mahadi Fort (Kota Raja Mahadi)". Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. 2000. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  14. ^ "Tengku Kudin menawan Kuala Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  15. ^ "Perisytiharan Pentadbiran Inggeris di Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  16. ^ a b Andaya, B.W. (1984). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-38121-9. 
  17. ^ "Surat persetujuan penyerahan Lukut kepada Sungai Ujong". National Archives of Malaysia. 7 October 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  18. ^ Suntharalingam, R. (28 March 1962). "A Short History of the Victoria Institution 1893-1961". Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  19. ^ Megat Zaharuddin, M.I. (2002). "Database of Malay Nobility - Genealogy Data". Geocities. Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Muhammad Shah
Sultan of Selangor
1859 - 6 February 1898
Succeeded by
Sulaiman Musa