Terminalia arjuna

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Terminalia arjuna
Fruit I IMG 9577.jpg
Arjuna fruit
Flowers with Sykes's warbler I IMG 1880.jpg
Arjuna flowers with a Sykes's Warbler
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Terminalia
Species: T. arjuna
Binomial name
Terminalia arjuna
(Roxb.) Wight & Arn.

Terminalia arjuna is a tree of the genus Terminalia. It is commonly known as arjuna[1] or arjun tree in English,[2] Thella Maddi in Telugu and Marudha Maram in Tamil.

Description[edit]

The arjuna is about 20–25 metres tall; usually has a buttressed trunk, and forms a wide canopy at the crown, from which branches drop downwards. It has oblong, conical leaves which are green on the top and brown below; smooth, grey bark; it has pale yellow flowers which appear between March and June; its glabrous, 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit, divided into five wings, appears between September and November.[1][2]

Terminalia arjuna in Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The arjuna is usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in West Bengal and south and central India.[1] It is known as (ಕಮರಾಕ್ಷಿ) neer maruthu in Malayalam 'Marutha Maram'(Marutham Pattai) in Tamil[3] [4] and in Kannada , Thella Maddi (తెల్ల మద్ది) in Telugu and kohda in Rajasthan.

Importance[edit]

Silk production[edit]

The arjuna is one of the species whose leaves are fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk (tussah), a wild silk of commercial importance.[5]

Alternative medicine[edit]

The arjuna was introduced into Ayurveda as a treatment for heart disease by Vagbhata (c. 7th century CE).[6] It is traditionally prepared as a milk decoction.[6] In the Ashtānga Hridayam, Vagbhata mentions arjuna in the treatment of wounds, hemorrhages and ulcers, applied topically as a powder. Arjuna is an excellent medicine for Heart, it has the capability to even improve heart failure.[7][8][6]

In Buddhism[edit]

In Theravada Buddhism, arjuna is said to have used as the tree for achieved enlightenment, or Bodhi by tenth Lord Buddha called "Anomadassi - අනෝමදස්සී". The plant is known as කුඹුක් (kumbuk) in Sinhala in Sri Lanka.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Biswas, Moulisha; Biswas, Kaushik; Karan, Tarun K; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Ghosh, Ashoke K; Haldar, Pallab K (2011). "Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Terminalia arjuna leaf". Journal of Phytology 3 (1): 33–8. 
  2. ^ a b "Arjun Tree". Eco India. 
  3. ^ "GERIATRICS AND SIDDHA MEDICINE". 
  4. ^ "Terminalia arjuna prevents any heart disease". 
  5. ^ M.P. Shiva, NWFP, & EC-FAO Partnership Programme. "Non-wood forest products In 15 countries of Tropical Asia". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
  6. ^ a b c "Arjuna". Todd Caldecott. Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  7. ^ Bharani A, Ganguly A, Bhargava KD (May 1995). "Salutary effect of Terminalia Arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure". International Journal of Cardiology 49 (3): 191–9. doi:10.1016/0167-5273(95)02320-V. PMID 7649665. 
  8. ^ Dwivedi S, Jauhari R (1997). "Beneficial effects of Terminalia arjuna in coronary artery disease". Indian Heart Journal 49 (5): 507–10. PMID 9505018. 

External links[edit]

  • Dwivedi S (November 2007). "Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.—A useful drug for cardiovascular disorders". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114 (2): 114–29. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.003. PMID 17875376. 
  • Karthikeyan K, Bai BR, Gauthaman K, Sathish KS, Devaraj SN (October 2003). "Cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury". Life Sciences 73 (21): 2727–39. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00671-4. PMID 13679240.