The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra

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The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, is a musical composition by Benjamin Britten in 1946 with a subtitle "Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Purcell". It was originally commissioned for an educational documentary film called Instruments of the Orchestra, directed by Muir Mathieson and featuring the London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Malcolm Sargent.[1] The work is one of the best-known pieces by the composer, and is one of the three popularly-used scores in children's music education, together with Saint-Saëns' The Carnival of the Animals and Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf.[citation needed]

This work, in the composer's own words, "is affectionately inscribed to the children of John and Jean Maud: Humphrey, Pamela, Caroline and Virginia, for their edification and entertainment".[2]

Instrumentation[edit]

The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is scored for the following large orchestra:

Structure[edit]

The work is based on the Rondeau from Henry Purcell's incidental music to Aphra Behn's Abdelazer,[3] and is structured, in accordance with the plan of the original documentary film, as a way of showing off the tone colours and capacities of the various sections of the orchestra.

In the introduction, the theme is initially played by the entire orchestra, then by each major family of instruments of the orchestra: first the woodwinds, then the brass, then the strings, and finally by the percussion. Each variation then features a particular instrument in depth, in the same family order, and generally moving through each family from high to low. So, for example, the first variation features the piccolo and flutes; each member of the woodwind family then gets a variation, ending with the bassoon; and so on, through the strings, brass, and finally the percussion.

After the whole orchestra has been effectively taken to pieces in this way, it is reassembled using an original fugue which starts with the piccolo, followed by all the woodwinds, strings, brass and percussion in turn. Once everyone has entered, the brass are re-introduced (with a strike on the gong) with Purcell's original melody.[4]

The sections of the piece and instruments introduced by the variations are as follows.

Theme: Allegro maestoso e largamente
Tutti, Woodwinds, Brass, Strings, then Percussion
Variation A: Presto
Piccolo and Flute
Variation B: Lento
Oboes
Variation C: Moderato
Clarinets
Variation D: Allegro alla marcia
Bassoons
Variation E: Brillante: alla polacca
Violins
Variation F: Meno mosso
Violas
Variation G: -
Cellos
Variation H: Cominciando lento ma poco a poco accel. al Allegro
Double Basses
Variation I: Maestoso
Harp
Variation J: L'istesso tempo
Horns
Variation K: Vivace
Trumpets
Variation L: Allegro pomposo
Trombones and Bass-Tuba
Variation M: Moderato
Percussion (Timpani; Bass Drum & Cymbals; Tambourine & Triangle; Snare Drum & Wood Block; Xylophone; Castanets & Gong; Whip; Percussion Tutti)
Fugue: Allegro molto

Narration[edit]

The narration for the documentary film was written by the producer of the first production of Britten's opera Peter Grimes, Eric Crozier, and is sometimes spoken by the conductor or a separate speaker during performance of the piece. The composer also arranged a version without narration. The one without narration is more often recorded. The commentary often alters between recordings. A new narration was written by Simon Butteriss for the Aldeburgh Festival and broadcast live by CBBC presenter Johny Pitts with the BBC Symphony Orchestra for the Britten 100 celebrations in 2013.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Instruments of the Orchestra", British Film Institute, accessed 24 May 2013
  2. ^ "Essential Britten: A Pocket Guide for the Britten Centenary", John Bridcut, accessed 14 January 2014
  3. ^ "Programme Notes". London Chamber Orchestra. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "Programme Notes". London Chamber Orchestra. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 

External links[edit]