Thomas Bray

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For other people named Thomas Bray, see Thomas Bray (disambiguation).

The Reverend Dr Thomas Bray (1658 – 15 February 1730) was an English clergyman, who spent time in Maryland as an Anglican representative.


He was born in Marton, near Chirbury, Shropshire, at a house today called Bray's Tenement (now owned by the Nicholls family), on Marton Crest, in 1658.[1] He was educated at Oswestry School and Oxford University, where he earned a B.A. degree with All Souls College and a M.A. with Hart Hall.

After leaving the university he was appointed vicar of Over Whitacre, and Rector of St Giles Church' Sheldon in Warwickshire, where he wrote his Catechetical Lectures. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, appointed him in 1696 as his commissary to organise the Church of England in Maryland. Rev. Bray sailed to that colony in 1699, and by his departure the following year had established seventeen parish libraries, in part using four hundreds contributed by Princess Anne of Denmark.[2] Dr. Bray took a great interest in colonial missions, especially among the Native Americans, but left swiftly after securing the establishment of the Church of England in the colony pursuant to an Act of the Assembly in 1700, because the colony's Quakers were attempting to secure the law's veto in England.[3]

After returning to England, Bray founded the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (founded 1701), now known as USPG, owes its existence.

He also projected a successful scheme for establishing parish libraries in England and America, out of which grew the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (founded 1698). Bray envisioned a library for each parish in America:

To obtain books for these libraries, requests are to be made to the learned authors now living, to give copies of their books, and to others, especially merchants to the foreign plantations, to give money, of all of which there shall be a full account published.[4]

These libraries were meant to encourage the spread of the Anglican church in Britain's colonies, and as such were primarily composed of theological works. It was a major endeavour, as at the time the only other public libraries in the American colonies were at a small number of universities.[5] At the time of his death he had succeeded in establishing 80 such libraries in England and Wales and 39 in America.[1]

From 1706 until his death in February 1730 he was rector of St Botolph's, Aldgate, London, where he engaged in further philanthropic and literary pursuits.

Memorial plaque in St Botolph's, Aldgate

A memorial plaque was erected in 1901 in the parish church at Chirbury.[1] He is also honoured with a feast day on the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America on 15 February.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Dickins, Gordon (1987). An Illustrated Literary Guide to Shropshire. Shropshire Libraries. pp. 9, 102. ISBN 0-903802-37-6. 
  2. ^ Helen West Ridgely, The Old Brick Churches of Maryland (New York: Anson D.R. Randolph and Company, 1894) p. 43
  3. ^ Ridgely at p. 48
  4. ^ Steiner, Bernard (October 1896). "Rev. Thomas Bray and His American Libraries". American Historical Review 2 (1): 59–75. doi:10.2307/1833614. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Steiner, Bernard. "Rev. Thomas Bray and his American Libraries". The American Historical Review October 1896, pp 59–75.

Further reading[edit]

  • Houlette, W. D. (1934). Parish libraries and the work of the Reverend Thomas Bray. Library Quarterly, 4588-609.
  • Laugher, C. T. (1973). Thomas Bray's grand design; libraries of the Church of England in America, 1695–1785, by Charles T. Laugher. Chicago, American Library Association, 1973.
  • William D. Houlette. Parish Libraries and the Work of the Reverend Thomas Bray. The Library Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Oct. 1934), pp. 588–609
  • Joseph Towne Wheeler, "Thomas Bray and the Maryland Parochial Libraries," Maryland Historical Magazine (1939): 246–65
  • Samuel Clyde McCulloch. Dr. Thomas Bray's Trip to Maryland: A Study in Militant Anglican Humanitarianism. The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan. 1945), pp. 15–32
  • Samuel Clyde McCulloch. Dr. Thomas Bray's Commissary Work in London, 1696–1699. The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Oct. 1945), pp. 334–348
  • Charlotte Fletcher. The Reverend Thomas Bray, M. Alexandre Vattemare, and Library Science. The Library Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Apr. 1957), pp. 95–99
  • Verner W. Crane. Dr. Thomas Bray and the Charitable Colony Project, 1730. The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Jan. 1962), pp. 49–63
  • David R. MacDonald The Transit of the Anglican Mind to the Maryland Colony: Thomas Bray & the Bray Libraries of Christ Church Durham Nanjemoy, Maryland 1696–1701 ISBN 978-1-929569-31-1 [1]

External links[edit]


Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.