Tina Manning

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Tina Manning (left), John Trudell and their children

Tina Manning Trudell was a Paiute-Shoshone water rights activist and wife of John Trudell,[1] Chairman of the American Indian Movement.

Manning was the daughter of Arthur and Leah Hicks Manning. Her father had served as the tribal chairman of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation.[2] She attended the University of Tulsa, where first she met John Trudell.[3]

She was killed, along with her unborn baby (Josiah Hawk), three other children–Ricarda Star, Sunshine Karma, and Eli Changing Sun–and her mother in an arson attack on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation[2] in northern Nevada on 12 February 1979. Her father survived the fire but was badly burned.[2]

The attack took place less than 12 hours after John Trudell had delivered a speech in front of FBI headquarters during which he burned a United States flag.


  1. ^ Mankiller and Wallis, 209
  2. ^ a b c Mankiller and Wallis, 210
  3. ^ "John Trudell: A Man of Beautiful Lines." Unsung Heroes. 2008 (retrieved 13 April 2010)


  • Hoxie, Fredrick E., Mancall, Peter C. and Merrell, James (2001). American Nations: Encounters in Indian Country, 1850 to the Present. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92750-1
  • Mankiller, Wilma and Wallis, Michael. Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-20662-3.
  • Rowell, Andrew (1996). Green Backlash: Global Subversion of the Environment Movement. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12827-7