Treaty of Xanten
The Treaty of Xanten (German: Vertrag von Xanten) was signed in the Lower Rhine town of Xanten on November 12, 1614 between Wolfgang William, Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, with representatives from England and France serving as mediators.
The treaty ended the War of the Jülich succession and all hostilities between Wolfgang William and John Sigismund. Based on the terms of the treaty, the territories of Jülich-Berg and Ravenstein went to Wolfgang William. Moreover, the territories of Cleves-Mark and Ravensberg went to John Sigismund. These last territories were the first provinces at the Rhine and in Westphalia to be governed by the House of Hohenzollern, and were the oldest constituents of the future Prussian Rhineland and the future Province of Westphalia.
- Hayden, p. 22. The other major problem in the [Holy Roman] Empire brings full circle the discussion of the Regency foreign policy. The two occupants of the Cleves-Jülich territory could not get along with each other. In the involved negotiations, the claimants changed religions and sought outside allies. The result was the threat of war in 1614 by the allies, the Dutch for Brandenburg and the Spanish for Neuberg. These two states, however, had no desire to break the truce of 1609, and after some feinting, negotiations opened which were assisted by England and France. The resulting Treaty of Xanten was signed on November 12, 1614, with Jülich and Berg going to Wolfgang William of Neuberg while Elector John Sigismund got Cleves, Mark, and Ravensburg. The Spanish army under Spinola refused to give up the key fortress of Wesel, and further negotiations were necessary, but in the end a shaky peace was maintained.
- Hayden, Michael J. Continuity in the France of Henry IV and Louis XIII: French Foreign Policy, 1598-1615. Journal of Modern History, Vol. 45, No. 1 (March 1973), pp. 1-23.