Treblinka, Masovian Voivodeship
|Gmina||Gmina Małkinia Górna|
Treblinka [trɛˈbliŋka] is a village located in eastern Poland with 350 inhabitants. It is now situated in the district of Gmina Malkinia Gorna, within Ostrów Mazowiecka County in Masovian Voivodeship, some 80 kilometres north-east of Warsaw. The village lies close to the Bug River.
World War II history
Treblinka is the location of Treblinka extermination camp where an estimated 850,000 people were systematically murdered during the Holocaust in Poland. About 800,000 of them were Polish Jews. First deportations took place in the course of the Grossaktion Warsaw with about 254,000 Warsaw Ghetto residents brought in to their deaths in Holocaust trains in the summer of 1942. During several periods of camp's operation, thousands of dead bodies of victims left unburied had accumulated to such a point that the putrid odor of decaying human remains could be smelled for approximately 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) in every direction. It was self-evident that mass extermination was taking place at the camp, which caused panic among the villagers.
The onset of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising inspired renewed hopes for an escape among Treblinka Sonderkommandos. One of the last Jewish transports of 7,000 victims were brought in on 19 April 1943 including the Warsaw insurgents. Treblinka was the first death camp ever to experience a prisoner uprising against the SS, which erupted on 2 August 1943 under the leadership of former Polish Army officer Dr. Berek Lajcher.
The first commandant of the camp from July 11, 1942 until 31 August 1942 was Irmfried Eberl, relieved of his duties for not being efficient and secretive enough about the camp's murder operation. He was succeeded by Franz Stangl, previously the commandant of Sobibor extermination camp, as the second and last commandant of Treblinka, from 1 September 1942 until its close of operations on 19 October 1943.
The Nazi hierarchy took measures to modify the camp under Franz Stangl, who built more efficient gas chambers and massive cremation pyres for the incineration of corpses. When the camp ended operations on 19 October 1943, the Nazis attempted (in vain) to remove all evidence that a camp (and the mass murder carried out there) had existed near Treblinka. Relatively little physical evidence remains today.
- Treblinka. Holocaust Research Project.
- Kopówka, Edward; Rytel-Andrianik, Paweł (2011), "Treblinka II – Obóz zagłady" [Monograph, chpt. 3: Treblinka II Death Camp] (PDF file, direct download 20.2 MB), Dam im imię na wieki [I will give them an everlasting name. Isaiah 56:5] (in Polish) (Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe [The Drohiczyn Scientific Society]), ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1, retrieved 9 September 2013, "with list of Catholic rescuers of Jews imprisoned at Treblinka, selected testimonies, bibliography, alphabetical indexes, photographs, English language summaries and forewords by Holocaust scholars."
- BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 3: Factories of Death.