Tristichopteridae

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Tristichopteridae
Temporal range: 392–359Ma
Middle - Late Devonian
Platycephalichthys teeth detail.jpg
Teeth of Platycephalichthys, in CosmoCaixa Barcelona
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sarcopterygii
Clade: Eotetrapodiformes
Family: Tristichopteridae
Cope, 1889
Genera

See below

Tristichopterids (Tristichopteridae) were a diverse and successful group of tetrapodomorph fishes living throughout the Middle and Late Devonian. They first appeared in the Givetian stage of the Middle Devonian. Within the group sizes ranged from a few tens of centimeters (Tristichopterus) to several meters (Hyneria and Eusthenodon).

Some tristichopterids share some of the features of the elpistostegalians, a paraphyletic assemblage of fishes close to the origin of tetrapods. This mainly concerns the shape of the skull and a reduction in size of the posterior fins.

An old and persistent notion is that Eusthenopteron was able to crawl onto land using its fins. However, there is no evidence actually supporting this idea. All tristichopterids went extinct by the end of Late Devonian.

Genera of Tristichopterids[edit]

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is a cladogram modified from Swartz, 2012.[1][better source needed]



?†Devonosteus proteus Jaekel 1927



?†Callistipterus clappi



?†Heddleichthys dalgleisiensis Anderson 1859



?†Hyneria lindae Thomson 1968



?†Langlieria socqueti (Clément et al., 2009)



?†Litoptychius bryanti Vorobyeva 1977



?†Notorhizodon mackelveyi Young, Long & Ritchie 1992



Spodichthys buetler Jarvik 1985




Tristichopterus alatus Egerton 1861




Eusthenopteron Whiteaves 1881




Jarvikina wenjukowi (Rohon 1889) Vorobyeva 1977




Cabonnichthys burnsi Ahlberg & Johanson 1997




Mandageria fairfaxi Johanson & Ahlberg 1997



Eusthenodon Jarvik 1952








References[edit]

  • Ahlberg, PE and Z Johanson (2001). "Second tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Osteolepiformes) from the Upper Devonian of Canowindra, New South Wales, Australia, and phylogeny of the Tristichopteridae." in Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 17:563-673.
  • Johanson, Z. and P.E. Ahlberg (1997). "New tristichopterid (Osteolepiformes; Sarcopterygii) from the Mandagery Sandstone (Famennian) near Canowindra, N.S.W., Australia." in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 88:39-53.