Phylogeny of Tuber species in the Gibbosum clade, based on ribosomal DNA sequences.
The species was first described by American mycologist Harvey Wilson Harkness in 1899. The specific epithet derives from the Latin word gibbosum meaning "humped", and refers to the irregular lobes and humps on larger specimens. T. gibbosum is part of the Gibbosum clade of the genus Tuber. Species in this clade have unusual "peculiar wall thickenings on hyphal tips emerging from the peridial surface at maturity."
^ abcCastellanoi G, Trappe JM, Rawlinson P, Vilgalys R. (2010). "Improved resolution of major clades within Tuber and taxonomy of species within the Tuber gibbosum complex". Mycologica102 (5): 1042–57. doi:10.3852/09-213.
^Phillips W, Harkness HW. (1899). "Californian hypogaeous fungi". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 8 3 (8): 241–91.