Turbinidae

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Turbinidae
Turbo cornutus 1.jpg
Three views of a shell of Turbo cornutus with the operculum in place
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Clade: Vetigastropoda
Superfamily: Trochoidea (superfamily)
Family: Turbinidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Genera and species

See text

Turbinidae, the turban snails, are a family of small to large marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Trochoidea. [1]

Description[edit]

Turbinidae have a strong, thick calcareous operculum readily distinguishing them from the somewhat similar Trochidae or top snails, which have a corneous operculum. This strong operculum serves as a passive defensive structure against predators that try to enter by way of the aperture or that would break the shell at the outer lip.

Etymology[edit]

The common name turban snail presumably refers to the shell's similarity in appearance to a turban. However, the scientific name Turbinidae is based on the genus name Turbo, which is Latin for spinning top, a child's toy. The word turbine has a similar derivation.

Taxonomy[edit]

Previously[when?] they were classified in the subclass Prosobranchia, in the order Archaeogastropoda in the superfamily Trochacea. Trochaecea is now a synonym for the superfamily Trochoidea. However, this is a quite ancient group of gastropods, probably originating in the Permian period 298 to 250 million years ago.[2] They have typical primitive characters like the nacreous interior of the shell.

2005 taxonomy[edit]

Turbinidae belongs to superfamily Turbinoidea according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005).

This family consists of eight following subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005):

  • Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 - synonyms: Senectinae Swainson, 1840; Imperatorinae Gray, 1847; Astraliinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854; Astraeinae Davies, 1935; Bolmidae Delpey, 1941
  • Angariinae Gray, 1857 - synonym: Delphinulinae Stoliczka, 1868
  • Colloniinae Cossmann, 1917
    • tribe Colloniini Cossmann, 1917 - synonym: Bothropomatinae Thiele, 1924 (inv.); Homalopomatinae Keen, 1960; Petropomatinae Cox, 1960
    • tribe † Adeorbisinini Monari, Conti & szabo, 1995
    • tribe † Crossostomatini Cox, 1960
    • tribe † Helicocryptini Cox, 1960
  • Moellerinae Hickman & McLean, 1990
  • Moreanellinae J. C. Fischer & Weber, 1997
  • Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 - synonym: "Prisogastrinae" in Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) is a spelling error.[3]
  • Skeneinae W. Clark, 1851 - synonym: Delphinoideinae Thiele, 1924
  • Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971

2008 taxonomy[edit]

Turbinidae was redefined and moved to the redefined superfamily Trochoidea according to Williams et al. (2008):[4] Angariidae was elevated to family level, Colloniinae was elevated to family Colloniidae within Phasianelloidea,[4] Margaritinae was moved to Turbinidae from Trochidae.[4]

This family consists of five following subfamilies according to Williams et al. (2008):[4]

  • Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 - synonyms: Senectinae Swainson, 1840; Imperatorinae Gray, 1847; Astraliinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854; Astraeinae Davies, 1935; Bolmidae Delpey, 1941
  • Skeneinae W. Clark, 1851 - synonym: Delphinoideinae Thiele, 1924 (upgraded to the rank of family Skeneidae)
  • Margaritinae Thiele, 1924 - tribes are sensu taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005) - upgraded to the rank of family Margaritidae
    • tribe Margaritini Thiele, 1924 - synonym: Margaritinae Stoliczka, 1868 (inv.)
    • tribe Gazini Hickman & McLean, 1990
    • tribe Kaiparathinini Marshall, 1993
  • Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971: upgraded to the rank of family Tegulidae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971
  • Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990

The following subfamilies (sensu Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) classification of subfamilies in Turbinidae) were kept in Turbinidae :

Distribution[edit]

The family Turbinidae, as defined by Williams et al. (2008):,[4] consist of clades, occurring in shallow and deep water. The family has a large distribution, from the tropics to the polar regions, but most of the species live in tropical and subtropical shallow waters.

Genera[edit]

The shell of Guildfordia yoka, a deep water turbinid

Genera in the Turbinidae family include:

Not belonging to any subfamily
Turbininae[6]
Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990
Genera brought into synonymy
  • Astrea Link, 1807: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
  • Agathistoma Olsson & Harbison, 1953: synonym of Tegula Lesson, 1832
  • Amyxa Troschel, 1852: synonym of Prisogaster Mörch, 1850
  • Calcar Montfort, 1810: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Canthorbis Swainson, 1840: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
  • Cardinalia Gray, 1842: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
  • Crosseia P. Fischer, 1885: synonym of Crossea A. Adams, 1865
  • Cyclocantha Swainson, 1840: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Dinassovica Iredale, 1937: synonym of Turbo (Turbo) Linnaeus, 1758 represented as Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Distellifer Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Foliastralium Habe & Okutani, 1980: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Galeoastraea Habe, 1958: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Halopsephus Rehder, 1943: synonym of Turbo (Halopsephus) Rehder, 1943 represented as Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Harisazaea Habe, 1958: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Imperator Montfort, 1810: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
  • Incilaster Finlay, 1926: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Livona Gray, 1842: synonym of Cittarium Philippi, 1847
  • Lunatica Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Macropelmus Gistel, 1848: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Margarita Leach, 1819: synonym of Margarites Gray, 1847
  • Micrastraea Cotton, 1939: synonym of Bellastraea Iredale, 1924
  • Notosetia Iredale, 1915: synonym of Putilla A. Adams, 1867
  • Okinawastraea Habe & Okutani, 1981: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Oobolma Sacco, 1896 : synonym of Bolma'' Risso, 1826
  • Ormastralium Sacco, 1896: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Pachypoma Gray, 1850: synonym of Lithopoma Gray, 1850
  • Pagocalcar Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Pseudastralium Schepman, 1908: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Pyramidea Swainson, 1840: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
  • Pyramis Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
  • Rugastella Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Senobolma Okutani, 1964: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Stella P. Fischer, 1885: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Submargarita Strebel, 1908: synonym of Lissotesta Iredale, 1915
  • Tharsiella Bush, 1897: synonym of Cirsonella Angas, 1877
  • Trochiscus G.B. Sowerby I, 1838: synonym of Norrisia Bayle, 1880
  • Tylastralium Sacco, 1896: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Valvatella Gray, 1857: synonym of Margarites Gray, 1847

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bouchet, P. (2014). Turbinidae Rafinesque, 1815. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=503 on 2014-07-28
  2. ^ Alf A., Kreipl K. & Poppe G. T. (2003) The Family Turbinidae, Subfamily Turbininae, Genus Turbo. In: Poppe G. T. & Groh K. (eds.): A Conchological Iconography: 68 pp., 95 colour plates, ConchBooks, Hackenheim, ISBN 3-925919-27-9.
  3. ^ a b Gofas, S. (2009). Prisogasterinae. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=382193 on 2010-04-19
  4. ^ a b c d e f Williams S. T., Karube S. & Ozawa T. (September 2008) "Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined". Zoologica Scripta 37(5): 483-506. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00341.x
  5. ^ Search for Moelleria, National Center for Biotechnology Information, accessed 19 April 2010.
  6. ^ Gofas, S. (2009). Turbininae. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=225151 on 2010-04-19
  7. ^ Alf A. & Kreipl K. (2011) The family Turbinidae. Subfamilies Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 and Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990. In: G.T. Poppe & K. Groh (eds), A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. pp. 1-82, pls 104-245.
  • Marshall, B.A. 1988. Skeneidae, Vitrinellidae and Orbitestellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) associated with biogenic substrata from bathyal depths off New Zealand and New South Wales. Journal of Natural History 22(4): 949-1004.
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.
  • Williams S.T., Karube S. & Ozawa T. (2008) Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta 37: 483–506.

External links[edit]