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Under-reporting usually stands for something that has not been reported or reported to be less than the actual amount. Due to under-reporting of crimes, it is hard to figure the actual amount of committed crimes. Such problem remains worldwide issue. Under-reporting can be also related to the non-criminal events.


Various estimates have been provided in relation to under-reporting of crimes across the world. According to the American Medical Association (1995), sexual violence, and rape in particular, is considered the most under-reported violent crime.[1] Fear of not being believed, feeling insecure or getting into some trouble, such reasons are regarded to be most common for not reporting rape.[2] It is commonly assumed that most of the rape cases go unreported;[3] some estimates go up to or above 90%.[4][5]

Murders are sometimes not reported.[6] Due to the fear of alleged murderer's connection with the other murderer, or because of settlement.

In 2012, universities of Leicester and Westminster, while collaborating with Serious Organised Crime Agency, estimated that 200,000 people had been victims of online dating fraud. The report included instances of under reported frauds.[7]


Under reported dengue in India,[8] Polio in China,[9] Pakistan,[10] disability in Malaysia,[11] remains a problem. In United States, it was estimated in 1989 that 40% of the Aids cases in South Carolina went unreported.[12] In 2008, out of 2,460 deaths from AIDS-related illnesses during a six-year period in Washington, DC, an estimated of 1,337 had not been reported.[13]


Under-reporting of population in countries such as China[14] has been documented.


  1. ^ "A gap or a chasm? Attrition in reported rape cases" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  2. ^ "Between 70-90% rapes thought to go unreported …and 94% of reported cases don’t end in a conviction - University of Surrey - Guildford". Surrey.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  3. ^ Nina Lakhani (2012-03-12). "Unreported rapes: the silent shame - Crime - UK". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  4. ^ "Rape Myths and Facts | wellwvu | West Virginia University". Well.wvu.edu. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  5. ^ "15642_Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  6. ^ ByJohn EsterbrookAPSeptember 9, 2002, 7:42 AM (2002-09-09). "Millions Of Crimes Go Unreported". CBS News. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  7. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/news_20131206_ecc-report-cross-border-e-commerce_en.pdf
  8. ^ Manish Kakkar. "Dengue fever is massively under-reported in India, hampering our response". BMJ. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  9. ^ "Polio unreported". Globaltimes.cn. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  10. ^ Khattak, Jehangir. "Why Pakistan is losing the war against polio – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  11. ^ by ian mcintyre (2013-09-16). "The number of disabled people under-reported, says don - Community | The Star Online". Thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  12. ^ AP (1989-11-28). "40% of AIDS Cases Go Unreported in Carolina - New York Times". South Carolina: Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  13. ^ "Newsfeed : AIDS Deaths Go Unreported in Washington, DC". Poz.com. 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  14. ^ Underreporting of Births and Infant Deaths in Rural China: Evidence from Field Research in One County of Northern China, No. 155 (Sep., 1998), pp. 637-655

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