United States Ambassador to South Africa

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Ambassador of the United States to South Africa
Department of state.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Patrick Gaspard (profile).jpg
Incumbent
Patrick Gaspard

since August 26, 2013
Nominator Barack Obama
Inaugural holder Ralph J. Totten
as Minister Resident/Consul General
Formation December 19, 1929
Website U.S. Embassy - Pretoria

Before 1902, The southern part of Africa that is now South Africa was under the hegemony of Great Britain. There also were two self-proclaimed independent states: Transvaal (also known as the South African Republic) and the Orange Free State. The British and the Boers fought two wars known as the First Boer War (1880–1881) and the Second Boer War (1899–1902). After the second war, in which the British prevailed, the republics were incorporated into the British Empire. On May 31, 1910, the two ex-republics and the British colonies of the Cape and Natal formed the Union of South Africa, a self-governing dominion of the British Empire.

The United States appointed its first ambassador to South Africa, Ralph J. Totten, in 1929. He was appointed as Minister Resident/Consul General and promoted to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary the following year.

South Africa was renamed the Republic of South Africa on May 31, 1961 after links to the British crown were severed.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional-recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country. See chargé d'affaires.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime". See ad interim.
  • Note: The ambassadors were commissioned to the Union of South Africa until 1961 when South Africa became a republic.
  • Ralph J. Totten – Career FSO[1]
    • Title: Minister Resident/Consul General
    • Appointed: December 19, 1929
    • Presented credentials: February 18, 1930
    • Terminated mission: June 20, 1930
  • Ralph J. Totten – Career FSO[1]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 20, 1930
    • Presented credentials: September 8, 1930
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 12, 1937
  • Leo J. Keena – Career FSO
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 31, 1937
    • Presented credentials: October 22, 1937
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 13, 1942
  • Lincoln MacVeagh – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 21, 1942
    • Presented credentials: October 21, 1942
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 21, 1943
  • Thomas Holcomb – Political appointee
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 21, 1944
    • Presented credentials: June 14, 1944
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 30, 1948
  • North Winship – Career FSO[2]
    • Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 24, 1948
    • Presented credentials: June 11, 1948
    • Terminated mission: March 2, 1949
  • Note: The title of the office was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary on March 2, 1949.
  • North Winship – Career FSO[2]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 2, 1949
    • Presented credentials: March 23, 1949
    • Terminated mission: Left South Africa, December 20, 1949
  • John G. Erhardt – Career FSO[3]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 23, 1950
    • Presented credentials: October 4, 1950
    • Terminated mission: Died at Cape Town, February 18, 1951
  • Waldemar J. Gallman – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 22, 1951
    • Presented credentials: October 18, 1951
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 15, 1954
  • Edward T. Wailes – Career FSO[4]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 15, 1954
    • Presented credentials: November 29, 1954
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 11, 1956
  • Henry A. Byroade – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 26, 1956
    • Presented credentials: October 9, 1956
    • Terminated mission: Left post January 24, 1959
  • Philip K. Crowe – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 16, 1959
    • Presented credentials: April 22, 1959
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 6, 1961
  • Joseph C. Satterthwaite – Career FSO[5]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: April 6, 1961
    • Presented credentials: May 22, 1961
    • Terminated mission: May 31, 1961
  • Note: South Africa became a republic on May 31, 1961. This required a new commission for the ambassador. Hereafter ambassadors were commissioned to the Republic of South Africa.
  • Joseph C. Satterthwaite – Career FSO[5]
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 31, 1961
    • Presented credentials: May 31, 1961
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 17, 1965
  • William M. Rountree – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 20, 1965
    • Presented credentials: January 8, 1966
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 5, 1970
  • John G. Hurd – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 24, 1970
    • Presented credentials: September 10, 1970
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 7, 1975
  • William G. Bowdler – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 17, 1975
    • Presented credentials: May 14, 1975
    • Terminated mission: Left post April 19, 1978
  • William B. Edmondson – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 3, 1978
    • Presented credentials: June 5, 1978
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 22, 1981
  • Herman W. Nickel – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: March 29, 1982
    • Presented credentials: April 20, 1982
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 4, 1986
  • Edward Joseph Perkins – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: October 16, 1986
    • Presented credentials: November 27, 1986
    • Terminated mission: Left post May 22, 1989
  • William Lacy Swing – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 7, 1989
    • Presented credentials: September 8, 1989
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 5, 1992
  • Princeton N. Lyman – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 14, 1992
    • Presented credentials: September 21, 1992
    • Terminated mission: Left post December 14, 1995
  • James A. Joseph – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: December 19, 1995
    • Presented credentials: February 27, 1996
    • Terminated mission: Left post November 7, 1999
  • Delano Lewis – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 16, 1999
    • Presented credentials: January 21, 2000
    • Terminated mission: Left post June 22, 2001
  • Cameron R. Hume – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 5, 2001
    • Presented credentials: November 29, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 28, 2004
  • Jendayi Elizabeth Frazer – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 25, 2004
    • Presented credentials: August 10, 2004
    • Terminated mission: Left post August 26, 2005
  • Eric M. Bost – Political appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 20, 2006
    • Presented credentials: August 15, 2006
    • Terminated mission: January 20, 2009
  • Donald Gips - Political Appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: July 7, 2009
    • Presented credentials: October 1, 2009
    • Terminated Mission: unknown
  • Patrick Gaspard - Political Appointee
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 26, 2013
    • Presented credentials: unknown
    • Terminated Mission: unknown

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Totten was promoted to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary while in office. This required a new commission.
  2. ^ a b Winship was promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary while in office. This required a new commission.
  3. ^ Erhardt died while in office on February 18, 1951.
  4. ^ Wailes was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 3, 1954.
  5. ^ a b Satterthwaite was reaccredited to the Republic of South Africa when South Africa became a republic. A new letter of credence was submitted to the Foreign Office on May 31, 1961 but was not formally presented.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]