Ambassadors of the United States
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Ambassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. An ambassador can be appointed during a recess of the Senate, but can serve only to the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed by the Senate. Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President," which means that they can be dismissed at any time.
An ambassador may be a career foreign service officer or a political appointee. In most cases, U.S. ambassadors who are career foreign service officers serve a tour of approximately three years in a foreign post. Ambassadors who are political appointees will customarily tender their resignations upon inauguration of a new President. As embassies fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of State, ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State.
- 1 Current U.S. ambassadors
- 2 Ambassadors to international organizations
- 3 Ambassadors-at-large
- 4 Ambassadors to past countries
- 5 Other senior diplomatic representatives
- 6 Selected past ambassadors
- 7 Ambassadors killed in office
- 8 Nations without exchange of ambassadors
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes and references
- 11 External links
Current U.S. ambassadors
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Ambassadors to international organizations
Current ambassadors from the United States to international organizations
Current ambassadors-at-large from the United States with worldwide responsibility:
Ambassadors to past countries
- East Germany (German Democratic Republic)
- North Yemen (Yemen Arab Republic)
- South Vietnam
- South Yemen (People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen)
Other senior diplomatic representatives
Senior diplomatic representatives of the United States to posts other than embassies:
|Curaçao||Valerie Belon||Consul General and Chief of Mission|
|Hong Kong and Macau||Stephen M. Young||Consul General and Chief of Mission|
|Jerusalem||Daniel Rubinstein||Consul General and Chief of Mission|
|Taiwan||Christopher J. Marut||Director of the Taipei office of the American Institute in Taiwan|
|Cuba||John Caulfield||Chief of Mission, United States Interests Section in Havana|
Selected past ambassadors
Well-known past ambassadors from the United States:
Ambassadors killed in office
|Name||Ambassador to||Place of death||Date of death||Killed by|
|Laurence A. Steinhardt||Canada||Ramsayville, Ontario, Canada||March 28, 1950||plane crash|
|John Gordon Mein||Guatemala||Guatemala City, Guatemala||August 28, 1968||attack by Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes|
|Cleo A. Noel, Jr.||Sudan||Khartoum, Sudan||March 2, 1973||attack by Black September|
|Rodger Davies||Cyprus||Nicosia, Cyprus||August 19, 1974||attack during Greek Cypriot demonstration|
|Francis E. Meloy, Jr.||Lebanon||Beirut, Lebanon||June 16, 1976||attack by Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine|
|Adolph Dubs||Afghanistan||Kabul, Afghanistan||February 14, 1979||attack by Setami Milli|
|Arnold L. Raphel||Pakistan||Bahawalpur, Pakistan||August 17, 1988||plane crash|
|J. Christopher Stevens||Libya||Benghazi, Libya||September 12, 2012||attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission|
Nations without exchange of ambassadors
Bhutan: According to the United States Department of State, "The United States and the Kingdom of Bhutan have not established formal diplomatic relations; however, the two governments have informal and cordial relations." Informal contact with the nation of Bhutan is maintained through the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi.
Cuba: Although the island country of Cuba is a close neighbor to the United States, the U.S. interacts with Cuba only via a U.S. Interests office at the Swiss Embassy in Havana and Washington, D.C. The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961.</ref>
Iran: On April 7, 1980, the United States broke diplomatic relations with theocratic Iran. On April 24, 1981, the Swiss government assumed representation of U.S. interests in Tehran, and Algeria assumed representation of Iranian interests in the U.S. Currently, Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the government of Pakistan. The U.S. Department of State named Iran a "State Sponsor of Terrorism" on January 19, 1984.
North Korea: The communist dictatorship of North Korea is not on friendly terms with the U.S. and while talks between the two countries are ongoing, there is no exchange of ambassadors. Sweden functions as Protective Power for the United States including consular responsibility for U.S. citizens.
Taiwan: With the normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China in 1979, the U.S. does not maintain official diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Relations between Taiwan and the United States are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office, with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington, D.C., and 12 other U.S. cities. The Taipei Office of the American Institute in Taiwan functions as a de facto embassy, performing most consular functions and staffed by U.S. Foreign Service Officers formally "on leave".
- List of United States Foreign Service Career Ambassadors
- List of ambassadors to the United States
- Chief of Protocol of the United States
- United States Consuls General for Hong Kong and Macau
Notes and references
- U.S. Senate – Powers & Procedure Senate.gov Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Henry B. Hogue. "Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- The U.S. Ambassador to Spain—resident at Madrid—is also accredited to Andorra.
- The United States Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean, resident in Bridgetown, Barbados, is concurrently accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
- In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—still refer to the country as Burma in official usage. See Myanmar.
- One ambassador—resident at Antananarivo—is accredited to Madagascar and Comoros.
- The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Cuba. U.S. interests in Cuba are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana.
- The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not recognized by the United Nations, the United States, nor any other country aside from Turkey.
- One ambassador—resident at Suva—is accredited to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Source U.S. Embassy Suva.
- As of December 2006, the U.S. ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco.
- One ambassador—resident at Libreville—is accredited to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. Source: U.S. State Department
- One ambassador—resident at Dakar—is accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.
- The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Iran. U.S. interests in Iran are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Tehran.
- The U.S. Ambassador to Rome is also accredited to San Marino. The U.S. Consulate in Florence handles matters concerned with San Marino.
- The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with North Korea. American citizens who travel to North Korea do so at their own risk and in some cases in violation of U.S. and/or UN sanctions.
- One ambassador—resident at Bern—is accredited to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
- One ambassador—resident at Colombo—is accredited to Maldives and Sri Lanka.
- One ambassador—resident at Port Louis—is accredited to Mauritius and Seychelles.
- Until December 2006, the United States and Monaco had no formal diplomatic relations (exchange of ambassadors). The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, managed relations with Monaco. In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations and Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco. Source: Department of State: Background notes on Monaco, U.S. Embassy in France: U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Monaco.
- One ambassador—resident at Wellington—is accredited to New Zealand and Samoa.
- Until 2005 one ambassador—resident at Manila—was accredited to the Philippines and Palau. Source: CIA World Factbook. Helen Reed-Rowe is the first ambassador to Palau to be confirmed in 2010.
- One ambassador—resident at Port Moresby—is accredited to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
- The United States does not recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, nor does the US recognize Moroccan claims to sovereignty over Western Sahara. Sources: Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Morocco.
- The United States has no diplomatic relations with Somalia. The last ambassador to Somalia was James Keough Bishop when the embassy in Mogadishu was closed on January 5, 1991. Source: U.S State Department.
- "Virtual Presence Post Somalia".
- Abkhazia and South Ossetia are not recognized by the United Nations, the United States, nor any other countries aside from Russia, Nicaragua and Venezuela.
- The U.S. Embassy in Khartoum was closed on February 7, 1996. Timothy Michael Carney was the last ambassador to Sudan. The embassy was reopened on May 23, 2002, with Jeffrey Millington as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. There has been no U.S. ambassador in Khartoum since then. Source U.S. Department of State.
- Ambassador Margaret Scobey was recalled February 2005 in protest of Rafik Hariri assassination. Ref: U.S. Department of State press release, Background notes on Syria, BBC News. Ambassador Scobey has since been reassigned as the ambassador to Egypt.
- The United States established relations with the People's Republic of China in 1979. Since then, relations between the US and Taiwan are carried out by the American Institute in Taiwan in Taipei.
- The ambassador to the U.K. is known as the "Ambassador to the Court of St. James's."
- President Chavez ordered the expulsion of the U.S. Ambassador, John Duddy, on September 11, 2008 in solidarity with the Bolivian government's decision to expel the U.S. Ambassador in La Paz. The U.S. Government ordered the reciprocal expulsion of the Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington. Source: U.S. Department of State Background Notes on Venezuela
- "US Ambassadors Killed in the Line of Duty". Associated Press. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- "Bhutan (08/04)". United States Department of State.
- May, Donald (January 17, 1961). "U.S. Halts Tourist Travel to Cuba; Special Permit Required for Visit". The Washington Post. p. A1.
- Goshko, John M.; Walsh, Edward (April 8, 1980). "U.S. Breaks Diplomatic Ties With Iran: Carter Breaks Ties, Orders Ouster of Iranian Diplomats". The Washington Post. p. A1.
- "Former No. 2 Iran Diplomat To Be Allowed Back in U.S.". The Washington Post. April 25, 1980. p. A27.
- "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". State.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-04.
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- Websites of U.S. Embassies and Consulates
- Principal Officers and Chiefs of Mission
- United States Mission to the United Nations
- US ambassadors killed in the line of duty