Ambassadors of the United States

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Flag of ambassadors of the United States

This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, to past nations, and ambassadors-at-large.

Ambassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate.[1] An ambassador can be appointed during a recess, but he or she can only serve as ambassador until the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed.[2] Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President", meaning they can be dismissed at any time.

An ambassador may be a career foreign service officer or a political appointee. In most cases, career foreign service officers serve a tour of approximately three years per ambassadorship whereas political appointees customarily tender their resignations upon the inauguration of a new president. As embassies fall under the U.S. State Department's jurisdiction, ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State.

Current U.S. ambassadors[edit]

Host country Ref U.S. Ambassador Embassy
Website
Date Confirmed
 Afghanistan Ref James B. Cunningham Kabul August 2012
 Albania Ref Donald Lu Tirana November 2014
 Algeria Ref Joan A. Polaschik Algiers July 2014
 Andorra[3] Ref James Costos Madrid August 2013
 Angola Ref Helen Meagher La Lime Luanda May 2014
 Antigua and Barbuda[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Argentina Ref Kevin K. Sullivan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Buenos Aires
 Armenia Ref John A. Heffern Yerevan August 2011
 Australia Ref John Berry Canberra August 2013
 Austria Ref Alexa Lange Wesner Vienna August 2013
 Azerbaijan Ref Vacant since July 31, 2014
Dereck Hogan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Baku
 Bahamas, The Ref Lisa A. Johnson, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Nassau
 Bahrain Ref William V. Roebuck Manama November 2014
 Bangladesh Ref Marcia Stephens Bloom Bernicat Dhaka November 2014
 Barbados[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Belarus Ref Vacant since March 12, 2008
Scott M. Rauland, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Minsk  
 Belgium Ref Denise Campbell Bauer Brussels August 2013
 Belize Ref Carlos R. Moreno Belmopan May 2014
 Benin Ref Michael Raynor Cotonou May 2012
 Bolivia Ref Vacant since September 10, 2008
Peter M. Brennan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
La Paz  
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Ref Maureen Elizabeth Cormack Sarajevo November 2014
 Botswana Ref Earl Robert Miller Gaborone November 2014
 Brazil Ref Liliana Ayalde Brasilia August 2013
 Brunei Ref Craig B. Allen Bandar Seri Begawan November 2014
 Bulgaria Ref Marcie Berman Ries Sofia August 2012
 Burkina Faso Ref Tulinabo S. Mushingi Ouagadougou July 2013
 Burma (Myanmar)[5] Ref Derek Mitchell Rangoon June 2012
 Burundi Ref Dawn M. Liberi Bujumbura October 2012
 Cambodia Ref William E. Todd Phnom Penh March 2012
 Cameroon Ref Michael Stephen Hoza Yaoundé July 2014
 Canada Ref Bruce Heyman Ottawa March 2014
 Cape Verde Ref Adrienne S. O’Neal Praia October 2011
 Central African Republic Ref David Brown[disambiguation needed], Charge d'Affaires, a.i.
Embassy suspended operations on December 28, 2012
The French embassy is the protecting power
Bangui
 Chad Ref James Knight N'Djamena July 2013
 Chile Ref Michael A. Hammer Santiago March 2014
 China Ref Max Baucus Beijing February 2014
 Colombia Ref Kevin Whitaker Bogotá April 2014
 Comoros[6] Ref Robert T. Yamate Antananarivo November 2014
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ref James C. Swan Kinshasa August 2013
 Republic of the Congo Ref Stephanie Sanders Sullivan Brazzaville August 2013
 Costa Rica Ref Gonzalo Gallegos, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. San José
 Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Ref Terence Patrick McCulley Abidjan August 2013
 Croatia Ref Kenneth Merten Zagreb October 2012
 Cuba[7] Ref No diplomatic relations since the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
 Cyprus Ref John Koenig Nicosia August 2012  
 Czech Republic Ref Andrew Schapiro Prague July 2014
 Denmark Ref John Rufus Gifford Copenhagen August 2013
 Djibouti Ref Thomas P. Kelly III Djibouti June 2014
 Dominica[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Dominican Republic Ref James "Wally" Brewster, Jr. Santo Domingo November 2013
 East Timor (Timor-Leste) Ref Karen Clark Stanton Dili November 2014
 Ecuador Ref Adam E. Namm Quito April 2012
 Egypt Ref Robert S. Beecroft Cairo June 2014
 El Salvador Ref Mari Carmen Aponte San Salvador June 2012
 Equatorial Guinea Ref Mark L. Asquino Malabo June 2012
 Eritrea Ref Vacant since July 2010
Louis Mazel, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Asmara  
 Estonia Ref Jeffrey D. Levine Tallinn March 2012
 Ethiopia Ref Patricia Marie Haslach Addis Ababa August 2013
 Fiji[8] Ref Judith Beth Cefkin Suva November 2014
 Finland Ref Bruce J. Oreck Helsinki August 2009
 France[9] Ref Jane D. Hartley Paris September 2014
 Gabon[10] Ref Cynthia H. Akuetteh Libreville July 2014
 Gambia, The Ref Rick Yoneoka, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Banjul
 Georgia Ref Richard Norland Tbilisi March 2012
 Germany Ref John B. Emerson Berlin August 2013
 Ghana Ref Gene Cretz Ghana August 2012
 Greece Ref David D. Pearce Athens August 2013
 Grenada[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Guatemala Ref Todd D. Robinson Guatemala September 2014
 Guinea Ref Alexander Laskaris Conakry August 2012
 Guinea-Bissau[11] Ref Virtual Presence Post
Managed through the U.S. Embassy in Senegal
James Peter Zumwalt
Guinea-Bissau VPP November 2014
 Guyana Ref Vacant since July 3, 2014
Bryan D. Hunt, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Georgetown
 Haiti Ref Pamela A. White Port-au-Prince July 2012
 Holy See Ref Kenneth Francis Hackett Vatican August 2013
 Honduras Ref James D. Nealon Tegucigalpa July 2014
 Hungary Ref M. André Goodfriend, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Budapest
 Iceland Ref Vacant since November 23, 2013
Paul O'Friel, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Reykjavik  
 India Ref Vacant since March 31, 2014
Kathleen Stephens, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
New Delhi  
 Indonesia Ref Robert O. Blake, Jr. Jakarta November 2013
 Iran[12] Ref No diplomatic relations since the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
 Iraq Ref Stuart E. Jones Baghdad June 2014
 Ireland, Republic of Ref Kevin F. O'Malley Dublin September 2014
 Israel Ref Daniel B. Shapiro Tel Aviv July 2011
 Italy[13] Ref John R. Phillips Rome August 2013
 Jamaica Ref Luis Moreno Kingston November 2014
 Japan Ref Caroline Kennedy Tokyo October 2013
 Jordan Ref Alice Wells Amman June 2014
 Kazakhstan Ref George A. Krol Astana November 2014
 Kenya Ref Robert F. Godec Nairobi January 2013
 Kiribati[8] Ref Judith Beth Cefkin Suva November 2014
 North Korea The United States does not maintain diplomatic relations with North Korea.[14]
 South Korea Ref Mark William Lippert Seoul September 2014
 Kosovo Ref Tracey Ann Jacobson Pristina July 2012
 Kuwait Ref Douglas Silliman Kuwait City July 2014
 Kyrgyzstan Ref Pamela L. Spratlen Bishkek April 2011
 Laos Ref Daniel A. Clune Vientiane August 2013
 Latvia Ref Vacant since August 6, 2014
Sharon Hudson-Dean, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Riga
 Lebanon Ref David Hale Beirut August 2013
 Lesotho Ref Matthew T. Harrington Maseru September 2014
 Liberia Ref Deborah R. Malac Monrovia July 2012
 Libya Ref Deborah K. Jones Tripoli May 2013
 Liechtenstein[15] Ref Suzan G. LeVine Bern May 2014
 Lithuania Ref Deborah McCarthy Vilnius January 2013
 Luxembourg Ref Robert A. Mandell Luxembourg October 2011
 Macedonia, Republic of Ref Paul D. Wohlers Skopje September 2011
 Madagascar[6] Ref Robert T. Yamate Antananarivo November 2014
 Malawi Ref Vacant since September 1, 2014
Michael Gonzales, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Lilongwe
 Malaysia Ref Joseph Y. Yun Kuala Lumpur August 2013
 Maldives[16] Ref Michele J. Sison Colombo June 2012
 Mali Ref Andrew Young, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Bamako
 Malta Ref Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley Valletta April 2012
 Marshall Islands Ref Thomas Hart Armbruster Majuro August 2012
 Mauritania Ref Larry Edward Andre, Jr. Nouakchott July 2014
 Mauritius[17] Ref Shari Villarosa Port Louis September 2012
 Mexico Ref Earl Anthony Wayne Mexico City August 2011
 Micronesia, Federated States of Ref Dorothea-Maria Rosen Kolonia June 2012
 Moldova Ref James D. Pettit Chişinău November 2014
 Monaco[9][18] Ref Jane D. Hartley Paris September 2014
 Mongolia Ref Piper Anne Wind Campbell Ulaanbaatar June 2012
 Montenegro Ref Sue K. Brown Podgorica April 2011
 Morocco Ref Dwight L. Bush, Sr. Rabat March 2014
 Mozambique Ref Douglas M. Griffiths Maputo June 2012
 Namibia Ref Thomas Daughton Windhoek September 2014
 Nauru[8] Ref Judith Beth Cefkin Suva November 2014
   Nepal Ref Peter W. Bodde Kathmandu June 2012
 Netherlands Ref Timothy M. Broas The Hague March 2014
 New Zealand[19] Ref Vacant since January 17, 2014
Candy Green, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Wellington
 Nicaragua Ref Phyllis M. Powers Managua March 2012
 Niger Ref Eunice Reddick Niamey July 2014
 Nigeria Ref James F. Entwistle Abuja August 2013
 Norway Ref Vacant since September 27, 2013
Julie Furuta-Toy, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Oslo  
 Oman Ref Greta C. Holtz Muscat August 2012
 Pakistan Ref Richard G. Olson Islamabad October 2010
 Palau[20] Ref Thomas E. Daley, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Koror
 Panama Ref Jonathan D. Farrar Panama March 2012
 Papua New Guinea[21] Ref Walter North Port Moresby November 2012
 Paraguay Ref Leslie Ann Bassett Asunción November 2014
 Peru Ref Brian A. Nichols Lima June 2014
 Philippines[20] Ref Philip S. Goldberg Manila November 2013
 Poland Ref Stephen Mull Warsaw October 2012
 Portugal Ref Robert A. Sherman Lisbon April 2014
 Qatar Ref Dana Smith Doha July 2014
 Romania Ref Vacant since December 14, 2012
Dean Thompson, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Bucharest
 Russia Ref John F. Tefft Moscow July 2014
 Rwanda Ref Erica J. Barks Ruggles Kigali November 2014
 Saint Kitts and Nevis[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Saint Lucia[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[4] Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
 Samoa[19] Ref Vacant since January 17, 2014
Candy Green, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Wellington
 San Marino[13] Ref John R. Phillips Florence, San Marino[13] August 2013
 São Tomé and Príncipe[10] Ref Cynthia H. Akuetteh Libreville July 2014
 Saudi Arabia Ref Joseph W. Westphal Riyadh March 2014
 Senegal[11] Ref James Peter Zumwalt Dakar November 2014
 Serbia Ref Michael Kirby Belgrade August 2012
 Seychelles[17] Ref Shari Villarosa Port Louis September 2012
 Sierra Leone Ref John Hoover[disambiguation needed] Freetown September 2014
 Singapore Ref Kirk W.B. Wagar Singapore August 2013
 Slovakia Ref Theodore Sedgwick Bratislava July 2010
 Slovenia Ref Brent Hartley Ljubljana November 2014
 Solomon Islands[21] Ref Walter North Port Moresby November 2012
 Somalia[22][23] Ref Virtual Presence Post
Managed through the U.S. Embassy in Kenya
Somalia VPP  
 South Africa Ref Patrick Hubert Gaspard Pretoria August 2013
 South Sudan Ref Vacant since August 24, 2014
Charles Twining, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Juba
 Spain[3] Ref James Costos Madrid August 2013
 Sri Lanka[16] Ref Michele J. Sison Colombo January 2010
 Sudan[24] Ref Vacant since 1996
Jerry P. Lanier, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Khartoum  
 Suriname Ref Jay N. Anania Paramaribo June 2012
 Swaziland Ref Makila James Mbabane May 2012
 Sweden Ref Mark Brzezinski Stockholm October 2011
  Switzerland[15] Ref Suzan G. LeVine Bern May 2014
 Syria[25] Ref Daniel Rubinstein, Special Envoy Damascus March 2014
 Taiwan Since 1979, relations between the US and Taiwan have been carried out by the American Institute in Taiwan in Taipei.
 Tajikistan Ref Susan Marsh Elliott Dushanbe June 2012
 Tanzania Ref Mark B. Childress Dar es Salaam April 2014
 Thailand Ref Vacant since November 1, 2014
W. Patrick Murphy, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Bangkok
 Togo Ref Robert E. Whitehead Lomé May 2012
 Tonga[8] Ref Judith Beth Cefkin Tonga November 2014
 Trinidad and Tobago Ref Vacant
Margaret B. Diop, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Port of Spain
 Tunisia Ref Jacob Walles Tunis July 2012
 Turkey Ref John R. Bass Ankara September 2014
 Turkmenistan Ref Allan P. Mustard Ashgabat November 2014
 Tuvalu[8] Ref Judith Beth Cefkin Suva November 2014
 Uganda Ref Scott H. DeLisi Kampala May 2012
 Ukraine Ref Geoffrey R. Pyatt Kiev August 2013
 United Arab Emirates Ref Barbara A. Leaf Abu Dhabi November 2014
 United Kingdom[26] Ref Matthew Barzun London August 2013
 Uruguay Ref Julissa Reynoso Montevideo March 2012
 Uzbekistan Ref Pamela Spratlen Tashkent November 2014
 Vanuatu[21] Ref Walter North Port Moresby November 2012
 Venezuela Ref Vacant since July 2010
Lee McClenny, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.[27]
Caracas  
 Vietnam Ref Theodore G. Osius III Hanoi November 2014
 Yemen Ref Matthew H. Tueller Sana’a March 2014
 Zambia Ref Eric Schultz Lusaka September 2014
 Zimbabwe Ref David Bruce Wharton Harare August 2012
 Abkhazia Abkhasia is neither recognized by the United Nations nor by the United States.
 Northern Cyprus The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is neither recognized by the United Nations nor by the United States.
 Palestinian territories The Palestinian State ist not recognized by the United States.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is neither recognized by the United Nations nor by the United States[28]
 South Ossetia South Ossetia is neither recognized by the United Nations nor by the United States.

Ambassadors to international organizations[edit]

Current ambassadors from the United States to international organizations

Host organization Location Ambassador
African Union Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Reuben Earl Brigety, II
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Washington, D.C., United States Robert S. Wang
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Jakarta, Indonesia Nina Hachigian
Conference on Disarmament Geneva, Switzerland Robert A. Wood
European Union Brussels, Belgium Anthony Luzzatto Gardner
International Civil Aviation Organization Montreal, Canada Michael Lawson
North Atlantic Treaty Organization Brussels, Belgium Douglas Edward Lute
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Paris, France Daniel W. Yohannes
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons The Hague, Netherlands Robert Mikulak
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Vienna, Austria Daniel Brooks Baer
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Rashad Hussain
Organization of American States Washington, D.C., United States Carmen Lomellin
United Nations New York, United States Samantha Power
United Nations Agencies in Rome Rome, Italy David J. Lane
United Nations and Other International Organizations in Geneva Geneva, Switzerland Pamela K. Hamamoto
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris, France Crystal Nix-Hines
United Nations Environment Programme Nairobi, Kenya Joseph P. Murphy
United Nations Human Rights Council Geneva, Switzerland Keith M. Harper
United Nations International Organizations in Vienna Vienna, Austria Joseph E. Macmanus
World Trade Organization Geneva, Switzerland Michael Punke

Ambassadors-at-large[edit]

Current ambassadors-at-large from the United States with worldwide responsibility:

Title Ambassador U.S. State Department
Ambassador-at-Large for Counterterrorism Tina S. Kaidanow Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues Catherine M. Russell Office of Global Women’s Issues
Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom vacant[29] Office of International Religious Freedom
Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues Stephen Rapp Office of Global Criminal Justice
Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons Luis CdeBaca Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Ambassadors to past countries[edit]

Other senior diplomatic representatives[edit]

Senior diplomatic representatives of the United States to posts other than embassies:

Host country Ambassador Title
Curaçao Valerie Belon Consul General and Chief of Mission
Hong Kong and Macau Stephen M. Young Consul General and Chief of Mission
Jerusalem Daniel Rubinstein Consul General and Chief of Mission
Taiwan Christopher J. Marut Director of the Taipei office of the American Institute in Taiwan
Cuba John Caulfield Chief of Mission, United States Interests Section in Havana

Selected past ambassadors[edit]

Well-known past ambassadors from the United States:

Ambassadors killed in office[edit]

Eight United States Ambassadors have been killed in office – six of them by armed attack and the other two in plane crashes.[30]

Name Ambassador to Place of death Date of death Killed by
Laurence A. Steinhardt Canada Ramsayville, Ontario, Canada March 28, 1950 plane crash
John Gordon Mein Guatemala Guatemala City, Guatemala August 28, 1968 attack by Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes
Cleo A. Noel, Jr. Sudan Khartoum, Sudan March 2, 1973 attack by Black September
Rodger Davies Cyprus Nicosia, Cyprus August 19, 1974 attack during Greek Cypriot demonstration
Francis E. Meloy, Jr. Lebanon Beirut, Lebanon June 16, 1976 attack by Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Adolph Dubs Afghanistan Kabul, Afghanistan February 14, 1979 attack by Setami Milli
Arnold L. Raphel Pakistan Bahawalpur, Pakistan August 17, 1988 plane crash
J. Christopher Stevens Libya Benghazi, Libya September 12, 2012 attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission

Nations without exchange of ambassadors[edit]

  • Bhutan: According to the U.S. State Department, "The United States and the Kingdom of Bhutan have not established formal diplomatic relations; however, the two governments have informal and cordial relations".[31] Informal contact with the nation of Bhutan is maintained through the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi.[31]
  • Cuba: After breaking diplomatic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961, the United States only interacts with Cuba via a U.S. Interests office in the Swiss Embassy in Havana and Washington, D.C.[32]
  • Iran: On April 7, 1980, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Iran.[33] On April 24, 1981, the Swiss government assumed representation of U.S. interests in Tehran, and Algeria assumed representation of Iranian interests in the United States.[34] Currently, Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the government of Pakistan. The U.S. Department of State named Iran a "State Sponsor of Terrorism" on January 19, 1984.[35]
  • North Korea: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not on friendly terms with the United States, and while talks between the two countries are ongoing, there is no exchange of ambassadors. Sweden functions as Protective Power for the United States in Pyongyang and performs consular responsibilities for U.S. citizens in North Korea.[36]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Senate – Powers & Procedure Senate.gov Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  2. ^ Henry B. Hogue. "Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-25. 
  3. ^ a b The U.S. Ambassador to Spain—resident at Madrid—is also accredited to Andorra.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The United States Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean, resident in Bridgetown, Barbados, is concurrently accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  5. ^ In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—still refer to the country as Burma in official usage. See Myanmar.
  6. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Antananarivo—is accredited to Madagascar and Comoros.
  7. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Cuba. U.S. interests in Cuba are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana.
  8. ^ a b c d e One ambassador—resident at Suva—is accredited to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Source U.S. Embassy Suva.
  9. ^ a b As of December 2006, the U.S. ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco.
  10. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Libreville—is accredited to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. Source: U.S. State Department
  11. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Dakar—is accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.
  12. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Iran. U.S. interests in Iran are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Tehran. Since December 2011, the United States has also maintained a Virtual Embassy online.
  13. ^ a b c The U.S. Ambassador to Rome is also accredited to San Marino. The U.S. Consulate in Florence handles matters concerned with San Marino.
  14. ^ American citizens who travel to North Korea do so at their own risk and in some cases in violation of U.S. and/or UN sanctions.
  15. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Bern—is accredited to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
  16. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Colombo—is accredited to Maldives and Sri Lanka.
  17. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Port Louis—is accredited to Mauritius and Seychelles.
  18. ^ Until December 2006, the United States and Monaco had no formal diplomatic relations (exchange of ambassadors). The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, managed relations with Monaco. In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations and Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco. Source: Department of State: Background notes on Monaco, U.S. Embassy in France: U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Monaco.
  19. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Wellington—is accredited to New Zealand and Samoa.
  20. ^ a b Until 2005 one ambassador—resident at Manila—was accredited to the Philippines and Palau. Source: CIA World Factbook. Helen Reed-Rowe is the first ambassador to Palau to be confirmed in 2010.
  21. ^ a b c One ambassador—resident at Port Moresby—is accredited to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
  22. ^ The United States has no diplomatic relations with Somalia. The last ambassador to Somalia was James Keough Bishop when the embassy in Mogadishu was closed on January 5, 1991. Source: U.S State Department.
  23. ^ "Virtual Presence Post Somalia". 
  24. ^ The U.S. Embassy in Khartoum was closed on February 7, 1996. Timothy Michael Carney was the last ambassador to Sudan. The embassy was reopened on May 23, 2002, with Jeffrey Millington as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. There has been no U.S. ambassador in Khartoum since then. Source U.S. Department of State.
  25. ^ Ambassador Margaret Scobey was recalled February 2005 in protest of Rafik Hariri assassination. Ref: U.S. Department of State press release, Background notes on Syria, BBC News. Ambassador Scobey has since been reassigned as the ambassador to Egypt.
  26. ^ The ambassador to the U.K. is known as the "Ambassador to the Court of St. James's."
  27. ^ President Chavez ordered the expulsion of the U.S. Ambassador, John Duddy, on September 11, 2008 in solidarity with the Bolivian government's decision to expel the U.S. Ambassador in La Paz. The U.S. Government ordered the reciprocal expulsion of the Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington. Source: U.S. Department of State Background Notes on Venezuela
  28. ^ The US neither recognizes Moroccan claims to sovereignty over Western Sahara. Sources: Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Morocco.
  29. ^ http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/religious-liberty-ambassadors-resignation-raises-concerns/
  30. ^ "US Ambassadors Killed in the Line of Duty". Associated Press. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  31. ^ a b "Bhutan (08/04)". United States Department of State. 
  32. ^ May, Donald (January 17, 1961). "U.S. Halts Tourist Travel to Cuba; Special Permit Required for Visit". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  33. ^ Goshko, John M.; Walsh, Edward (April 8, 1980). "U.S. Breaks Diplomatic Ties With Iran: Carter Breaks Ties, Orders Ouster of Iranian Diplomats". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  34. ^ "Former No. 2 Iran Diplomat To Be Allowed Back in U.S.". The Washington Post. April 25, 1980. p. A27. 
  35. ^ "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". State.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  36. ^ http://www.swedenabroad.com/en-GB/Embassies/Pyongyang/About-us/About-the-Embassy/
  37. ^ Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: a political history (1. publ. ed.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801488054. 

External links[edit]