|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2009)|
The Usambara Mountains are a mountain range in North-East Tanzania, approximately 90 km long and ranging from 30 to 50 km in width. They are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains, which stretch from Kenya through Tanzania, and are one of the world’s Biodiversity hotspots. The range is accessible from the towns of Lushoto in the West, and Amani in the East. The Usambaras are commonly split into two sub-ranges, the West Usambara and the East Usambara. The East Usambara is closer to the coast, receives more rainfall, and is significantly smaller than the West Usambara.
Geology and ecology
The Usambaras are fairly unique in that, being in East Africa, their unspoiled regions are covered in the tropical forest, which today remains mainly in the West of the continent. The mountain range was formed nearly two billion years ago and due to a lack of glaciations and a relatively consistent climate, the rainforest has gone through a long term and unique evolution resulting in an impressive amount of endemism and an old growth cloud rain forest. West and East Usambaras are large ranges of Precambrian metamorphic geologic formations of acid-gneisses, pyroxenes and amphiboles. These mountains were formed by faulting and uplifting creating the drainage system of troughs that form many watersheds, which provide water to a majority of the population of northeast Tanzania (Lundgren 1980).
Considered tremendously significant ecologically, there are many protected zones throughout the range, which are being expanded and contributed to by the Tanzanian government, associated NGO's and research teams, and donor countries such as Norway. Several species are endemic to the Usambara forests, including the Usambara Eagle-owl (Bubo vosseleri), the Usambara Akalat (Sheppardia montana), the Usambara Weaver (Ploceus nicolli), and the tree Calodendrum eickii.
Historically the Usambara Mountains have been inhabited by the Bantu, Shambaa, and Maasai people who were a mix of agriculturalists and pastoralists. A Shambaa kingdom based on Vugu was founded by Mbegha in the first half of the 18th century. His grandson Kinyashi Muanga Ike gave the kingdom a stronger political and military structure. Under Kinyashi's son Kimweri ye Nyumbai the kingdom grew to cover both the west and east Usambaras, extending down to the coast and into the Pangani River valley to the south. After Kimweri died in 1862 the kingdom fell apart in a succession struggle.
In the late 19th century, German colonialists came to the area bringing with them a mix of cash crops like lumber trees, coffee, tea, and quinine, and also designated forests as reserves for either water conservation or timber use (Rogers 2009). They also brought a slew of new, western ideas which were, in many ways, diametrically opposed to traditional beliefs such as coexistence with the forest versus forest as a "separate wilderness" (Korschun 2007). The result of colonialism was a massive change in the way forests were perceived in the community, and conversion of traditional agriculture to cultivating cash crops such as quinine, pine trees, bananas, maize, tea, and coffee.
Development and tourism
Today, the population of the Usambaras has one of the highest growth rates (about 4% compared to the national average of 2.1%), a staggering amount of poverty and highest densities of people in all of Tanzania (R. Matthews 2009). Most of the inhabitants are subsistence farmers who rely heavily on the forests around them for timber, medicinal plants, clearing for agriculture, and fuel wood (S. Kiparo 2009). Furthermore 70% of the original forest cover of the West and East Usambaras has been lost. Major land and forest degradation remain a pressing issue.
However, there are still many places that attract tourists looking for an adventure off the beaten path. These include the bustling trade town of Lushoto, the once popular German resort Amani Nature Reserve and farm, and Mazumbai University Forest, which is considered the last example of a pristine forest in the East Usambaras.
- Forest history in East Africa's Eastern Arc Mountains: Biological science and the uses of history by Christopher A. Conte in: BioScience Vol. 60/4 (2010), pp. 309–313.
- The biological importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya by N.D. Burgessa, T.M. Butynski, N.J. Cordeiroe, N.H. Doggart, J. Fjeldså, K.M. Howell, F.B. Kilahama, S.P. Loader, J.C. Lovett, B. Mbilinyi, M. Menegon, D.C. Moyer, E. Nashanda, A. Perkin, F. Rovero, W.T. Stanley and S.N. Stuart in: Biological Conservation Vol. 134/2 (2007), pp. 209–231.
- Highland Sanctuary: Environmental History in Tanzania's Usambara Mountains by Christopher Allan Conte (2004). Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio, USA.
- The importance of Nilo and Nguu North Forest Reserves for the conservation of montane forest birds in Tanzania by Seddon, N., Capper, D.R., Ekstrom, J.M., Isherwood, I.S., Muna, R., Pople, R.G., Tarimo, E. and Timothy, J. in: Biological Conservation Vol. 87 (1999), pp. 59–72.
- Forest Conservation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania by A.C. Hamilton, R. Bensted-Smith and IUCN Tropical Forest Programme (1989, Illustrated book)
- "Route to a Regional Past: An Archaeology of the Lower Pangani (Ruvu) Basin, Tanzania, 500-1900 CE" by Jonathan Walz (2010). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.
- Conte, Christopher Allan (2004-01-01). Highland Sanctuary: Environmental History in Tanzania's Usambara Mountains. Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-1554-2. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Doggart, N.H.; Lovett, J.; Mhoro, B.; Kiure J., Burgess, N.D. (2005). "Biodiversity surveys in eleven Forest Reserves in the vicinity of the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania.". Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania, and Tanzania Forest Conservation Group, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
- Lovett, J.C. (1993). "Eastern Arc moist forest flora". Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Murless, Peter (2013). "The Usambara Mountains of Tanzania". Irente Biodiversity Reserve. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Skinner, Annabel (2005). "Tanzania & Zanzibar". Retrieved 2013-09-09.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Usambara Mountains.|
- Usambara Mountains
- Bird watching in the Usambara Mountains
- Botanical Research Institute at Amani
- Amani Nature Reserve - an introduction