User:Arredondo ales

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WMF chart.png literatura[edit]

Intel Corporation
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
NASDAQ-100 Component
S&P 500 Component
Industry Semiconductors
Founded July 18, 1968 (1968-07-18)
Founder Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce
Headquarters Santa Clara, California, U.S.[1]
Area served
Key people
Andy Bryant
Brian Krzanich
Renée James
Products Bluetooth chipsets, flash memory, microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, network interface cards, mobile phones
Revenue Decrease US$ 52.708 billion (2013)[2]
Decrease US$ 12.291 billion (2013)[2]
Decrease US$ 9.620 billion (2013)[2]
Total assets Increase US$ 92.358 billion (2013)[2]
Total equity Increase US$ 58.256 billion (2013)[2]
Number of employees
107,600 (2013)[3]

Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Santa Clara, California. Intel is one of the world's largest and highest valued semiconductor chip makers, based on revenue.[4] It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers.

Products and technologies[edit]

AMD Radeon Memory

Graphics products[edit]

AMD's current portfolio of dedicated graphics processors includes product families and associated technologies aimed at the consumer, professional and high-performance computing markets.

  • Radeon – brand for consumer line of graphics cards. Mobility Radeon is power-optimized versions of Radeon graphics chips for use in laptops.
  • AMD FirePro – brand for professional line of graphics cards for workstations. Succeeds the FireGL series of workstation CAD/CAM video cards, the FireMV series and the AMD FireStream series.
    • AMD FireStream – brand for discontinued product line targeting stream processing and GPGPU as used in various industries.
    • AMD FireMV – brand for discontinued product line targeting multi-monitor setups in professional environments.

AMD's current portfolio of technologies to be found in their products:

AMD Catalyst is a collection of proprietary device drivers software available for Microsoft Windows and Linux.

Since 2007, AMD has decidedly participated in the development of free and open-source graphics device drivers. The programming specifications for a number of chipsets and features were published in several rounds. and code is being contributed to the Direct Rendering Manager in the Linux kernel by employees hired by AMD for this purpose.

AMD chipsets[edit]

Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations. The chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets. The situation changed in 2003 with the release of Athlon 64 processors, and AMD chose not to further design its own chipsets for its desktop processors while opening the desktop platform to allow other firms to design chipsets. This was the “Open Platform Management Architecture” with ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia.

The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as AMD stopped the design of server chipsets in 2004 after releasing the AMD-8111 chipset, and again opened the server platform for firms to develop chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today, Nvidia and Broadcom are the sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors.

As the company completed the acquisition of ATI Technologies in 2006, the firm gained the ATI design team for chipsets which previously designed the Radeon Xpress 200 and the Radeon Xpress 3200 chipsets. AMD then renamed the chipsets for AMD processors under AMD branding (for instance, the CrossFire Xpress 3200 chipset was renamed as AMD 580X CrossFire chipset). In February 2007, AMD announced the first AMD-branded chipset since 2004 with the release of the AMD 690G chipset (previously under the development codename RS690), targeted at mainstream IGP computing. It was the industry's first to implement a HDMI 1.2 port on motherboards, shipping for more than a million units. While ATI had aimed at releasing an Intel IGP chipset, the plan was scrapped and the inventories of Radeon Xpress 1250 (codenamed RS600, sold under ATI brand) was sold to two OEMs, Abit and ASRock. Although AMD stated the firm would still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted the license of 1333 MHz FSB to ATI.

On November 15, 2007, AMD announced a new chipset series portfolio, the AMD 7-Series chipsets, covering from enthusiast multi-graphics segment to value IGP segment, to replace the AMD 480/570/580 chipsets and AMD 690 series chipsets, marking AMD's first enthusiast multi-graphics chipset. Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, 2007 as part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later time in Spring 2008 as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform.

AMD returned to the server chipsets market with the AMD 800S series server chipsets. It includes support for up to six SATA 6.0 Gbit/s ports, the C6 power state, which is featured in Fusion processors and AHCI 1.2 with SATA FIS–based switching support. This is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (890FX), IGP(890GX).

AMD Live![edit]

Main article: AMD Live!

As of 2007, AMD LIVE! was a platform marketing initiative focusing the consumer electronics segment, with an Active TV initiative for streaming Internet videos from web video services such as YouTube, into AMD Live! PC as well as connected digital TVs, together with a scheme for an ecosystem of certified peripherals for the ease of customers to identify peripherals for AMD LIVE! systems for digital home experience, called "AMD LIVE! Ready".[5]

AMD Quad FX platform[edit]

Main article: AMD Quad FX platform

The AMD Quad FX platform, being an extreme enthusiast platform,[clarification needed] allows two processors to connect through HyperTransport, which is a similar setup to dual-processor (2P) servers, excluding the use of buffered memory/registered memory DIMM modules, and a server motherboard, the current setup includes two Athlon 64 FX-70 series processors and a special motherboard.[citation needed] AMD pushed the platform for the surging demands for what AMD calls "megatasking",[6] the ability to do more tasks on a single system. The platform refreshes with the introduction of Phenom FX processors and the next-generation RD790 chipset, codenamed "FASN8".

Server platform[edit]

AMD's first multi-processor server platform, codenamed Fiorano, consists of AMD SR5690 + SP5100 server chipsets, supporting 45 nm, codenamed Shanghai Socket F+ processors and registered DDR2 memory. It was followed by the Maranello platform supporting 45 nm, codenamed Istanbul, Socket G34 processors with DDR3 memory. On single-processor platform, the codenamed Catalunya platform consists of codenamed Suzuka 45 nm quad-core processor with AMD SR5580 + SP5100 chipset and DDR3 support.[7][dead link]

AMD's x86 virtualization extension to the 64-bit x86 architecture is named AMD Virtualization, also known by the abbreviation AMD-V, and is sometimes referred to by the code name "Pacifica". AMD processors using Socket AM2, Socket S1, and Socket F include AMD Virtualization support. AMD Virtualization is also supported by release two (8200, 2200 and 1200 series) of the Opteron processors. The third generation (8300 and 2300 series) of Opteron processors will see an update in virtualization technology, specifically the Rapid Virtualization Indexing (also known by the development name Nested Page Tables), alongside the tagged TLB and Device Exclusion Vector (DEV).

AMD also promotes the "AMD I/O Virtualization Technology" (also known as IOMMU) for I/O virtualization.[8] The AMD IOMMU specification has been updated to version 1.2.[9] The specification describes the use of a HyperTransport architecture.

AMD's server initiatives include the following:

  • AMD Trinity, provides support for virtualization, security and management. Key features include AMD-V technology, codenamed Presidio trusted computing platform technology, I/O Virtualization and Open Management Partition.[10]
  • AMD Raiden, future clients similar to the Jack PC[11] to be connected through network to a blade server for central management, to reduce client form factor sizes with AMD Trinity features.
  • Torrenza, coprocessors support through interconnects such as HyperTransport, and PCI Express (though more focus was at HyperTransport enabled coprocessors), also opening processor socket architecture to other manufacturers, Sun and IBM are among the supporting consortium, with rumoured POWER7 processors would be socket-compatible to future Opteron processors. The move made rival Intel respond with the opening of Front Side Bus (FSB) architecture as well as Geneseo,[12] a collaboration project with IBM for coprocessors connected through PCI Express.
  • Various certified systems programs and platforms: AMD Commercial Stable Image Platform (CSIP), together with AMD Validated Server program, AMD True Server Solutions, AMD Thermally Tested Barebones Platforms and AMD Validated Server Program, providing certified systems for business from AMD.

Desktop platforms[edit]

Starting in 2007, AMD, following Intel, began using codenames for its desktop platforms such as Spider or Dragon. The platforms, unlike Intel's approach, will refresh every year, putting focus on platform specialization. The platform includes components such as AMD processors, chipsets, ATI graphics and other features, but continued to the open platform approach, and welcome components from other vendors such as VIA, SiS, and Nvidia, as well as wireless product vendors.

Updates to the platform includes the implementation of IOMMU I/O Virtualization with 45 nm generation of processors, and the AMD 800 chipset series in 2009.[13]

Embedded systems[edit]

In February 2002, AMD acquired Alchemy Semiconductor for its Alchemy line of MIPS processors for the hand-held and portable media player markets. On June 13, 2006, AMD officially announced that the line was to be transferred to Raza Microelectronics, Inc., a designer of MIPS processors for embedded applications.[14]

In August 2003, AMD also purchased the Geode business which was originally the Cyrix MediaGX from National Semiconductor to augment its existing line of embedded x86 processor products. During the second quarter of 2004, it launched new low-power Geode NX processors based on the K7 Thoroughbred architecture with speeds of fanless processors 667 MHz and 1 GHz, and 1.4 GHz processor with fan, of TDP 25 W. This technology is used in a variety of embedded systems (Casino slot machines and customer kiosks for instance), several UMPC designs in Asia markets, as well as the OLPC XO-1 computer, an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world. The Geode LX processor was announced in 2005 and is said will continue to be available through 2015.

For the past couple of years AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor. Leveraging the high throughput enabled through HyperTransport and the Direct Connect Architecture these server class processors have been targeted at high end telecom and storage applications. In 2007 AMD added the AMD Athlon, AMD Turion and Mobile AMD Sempron processors to its embedded product line. Leveraging the same 64-bit instruction set and Direct Connect Architecture as the AMD Opteron but at lower power levels, these processors were well suited to a variety of traditional embedded applications. Throughout 2007 and into 2008 AMD has continued to add both single-core Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors and dual-core AMD Athlon X2 and AMD Turion processors to its embedded product line and now offers embedded 64-bit solutions starting with 8W TDP Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors for fan-less designs up to multi-processor systems leveraging multi-core AMD Opteron processors all supporting longer than standard availability.[15]

The ATI acquisition included the Imageon and Xilleon product lines. In late 2008, the entire handheld division was sold off to Qualcomm, who have since produced the Adreno series. The Xilleon division was sold to Broadcom.

In April 2007, AMD announced the release of the M690T integrated graphics chipset for embedded designs. This enabled AMD to offer complete processor and chipset solutions targeted at embedded applications requiring high performance 3D and video such as emerging digital signage, kiosk and Point of Sale applications. The M690T was followed by the M690E specifically for embedded applications which removed the TV output, which required Macrovision licensing for OEMs, and enabled native support for dual TMDS outputs, enabling dual independent DVI interfaces.

In 2008, AMD announced the Radeon E2400, the first discrete GPU in their embedded product line offering the same long term availability as their other embedded products. That was followed in 2009 with the higher performance Radeon E4690 discrete GPU.

In 2009, AMD announced their first BGA packaged e64 architecture processors, known as the ASB1 family.

In 2010, AMD announced a second generation BGA platform referred to as ASB2. They also announced several new AM3 based processors with support for DDR3 memory.

In January 2011, AMD announced the AMD Embedded G-Series Accelerated Processing Unit. The first Fusion family APU for embedded applications. This announcement was followed by announcements for the high performance AMD Radeon E6760 and the value-conscious Radeon E6460 discrete GPUs. These solutions all added support for DirectX 11, OpenGL 4.1 and OpenCL 1.1.

In May 2012, AMD Announced the AMD Embedded R-Series[16] Accelerated Processing Unit. This family of products incorporates the Bulldozer CPU architecture, and Discrete-class AMD Radeon™ HD 7000G Series graphics.

AMD Embedded solutions offer 5+ year product life.

Other initiatives[edit]

  • 50x15, digital inclusion, with targeted 50% of world population to be connected through Internet via affordable computers by the year of 2015.
  • The Green Grid,[17] founded by AMD together with other founders, such as IBM, Sun and Microsoft, to seek lower power consumption for grids.
  • Codenamed SIMFIRE – interoperability testing tool for the Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware (DASH) open architecture.


  • AMD develops the AMD CodeXL tool suite which includes a GPU debugger, a GPU profiler, a CPU profiler and an OpenCL static kernel analyzer. CodeXL is freely available at AMD developer tools website.
  • AMD Stream SDK and AMD APP SDK (Accelerated Parallel Processing) SDK to enable AMD graphics processing cores (GPU), working in concert with the system’s x86 cores (CPU), to execute heterogeneously to accelerate many applications beyond just graphics[18]
  • AMD has also taken an active part in developing coreboot, and open source projects aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware.
  • In 2008, AMD released the low-level programming specifications for its GPUs, and works with the X.Org Foundation to develop drivers for AMD graphics cards.[21][22]
  • Extensions for software parallelism (xSP), aimed at speeding up programs to enable multi-threaded and multi-core processing, announced in Technology Analyst Day 2007. One of the initiatives being discussed since August 2007 is the Light Weight Profiling (LWP), providing internal hardware monitor with runtimes, to observe information about executing process and help the re-design of software to be optimized with multi-core and even multi-threaded programs. Another one is the extension of Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) instruction set, the SSE5.

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Traded as NYSEAMD
Industry Semiconductors
Founded May 1, 1969
Founder Jerry Sanders
Headquarters One AMD Place,[23]
Sunnyvale, California, United States
Area served
Key people
Lisa Su (CEO)[24]
Bruce Claflin (Executive Chairman)
Products Microprocessors
Motherboard chipsets
Graphics processing units
Random-access memory[25]
TV tuner cards[26]
Revenue Decrease $5.30 billion (2013)[27]
Increase $103 million (2013)[27]
Increase -$83 million (2013)[27]
Total assets
  • Increase US$ 4.337 billion (2013)[28]
  • Decrease US$ 4.0 billion (2012)[28]
Total equity Increase $544 million(2013)[27]
Number of employees
10,671 (2013)[27]
Divisions SeaMicro, Inc.

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, United States, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While initially it manufactured its own processors, the company became fabless after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications.

Renewable energy industry[edit]

The yearly yield of renewable electricity in Germany by source.

Germany's renewable energy sector is among the most innovative and successful worldwide. Nordex, Repower, Fuhrländer and Enercon are wind power companies based in Germany. SolarWorld, Q-Cells and Conergy are solar power companies based in Germany. These companies dominate the world market. Every third solar panel and every second wind rotor is made in Germany, and German turbines and generators used in hydro energy generation are among the most popular worldwide.[30]

Nearly 800,000 people work in the German environment technology sector; an estimated 214,000 people work with renewables in Germany, up from 157,000 in 2004, an increase of 36 percent.[30]

Siemens chief executive, Peter Löscher believes that Germany’s target of generating 35 per cent of its energy from renewables by 2020 is achievable – and, most probably, profitable for Europe’s largest engineering company. Its “environmental solutions” portfolio, which is firmly focused on renewables, is “already generating more than €27 billion a year, 35 per cent of Siemens’ total revenue, and the plan is to grow this to €40 billion by 2015”. Ending its involvement in nuclear industry will boost the credibility of Siemens as a purveyor of “green technology”.[31]

Germany's main competitors in solar electricity are Japan, the US and China. In the wind industry it is Denmark, Spain and the US.

Largest cities, 2011 Census Estimates
City Population
High Point

Secretaries-general and presidents[edit]

Ronald Noble at the 6th Global Congress about combating piracy and counterfeiting.

Secretaries-general since organization's inception in 1923:

Austria Oskar Dressler 1923–1946
France Louis Ducloux 1946–1951
France Marcel Sicot 1951–1963
France Jean Népote 1963–1978
France André Bossard 1978–1985
United Kingdom Raymond Kendall 1985–2000
United States Ronald Noble 2000–present

Presidents since organization's inception in 1923:

Austria Johann Schober 1923–1932
Austria Franz Brandl 1932–1934
Austria Eugen Seydel 1934–1935
Austria Michael Skubl 1935–1938
Nazi Germany Otto Steinhäusl 1938–1940
Nazi Germany Reinhard Heydrich 1940–1942
Nazi Germany Arthur Nebe 1942–1943
Nazi Germany Ernst Kaltenbrunner 1943–1945
Belgium Florent Louwage 1945–1956
Portugal Agostinho Lourenço 1956–1960
United Kingdom Richard Jackson 1960–1963
Finland Fjalar Jarva 1963–1964
Belgium Firmin Franssen 1964–1968
West Germany Paul Dickopf 1968–1972
Canada William Leonard Higgitt 1972–1976
Sweden Carl Persson 1976–1980
Philippines Jolly Bugarin 1980–1984
United States John Simpson 1984–1988
France Ivan Barbot 1988–1992
Canada Norman Inkster 1992–1994
Sweden Björn Eriksson 1994–1996
Japan Toshinori Kanemoto 1996–2000
Spain Jesús Espigares Mira 2000–2004
South Africa Jackie Selebi 2004–2008
Chile Arturo Herrera Verdugo acting president until the General Assembly in Saint Petersburg in October 2008, and candidate for the President on that General Assembly
Singapore Khoo Boon Hui Oct 2008–2012
France Mireille Balestrazzi Nov 2012–present

Divisão administrativa[edit]

File:Chicago community areas map.svg Administrativamente, o município está dividido em trinta e uma subprefeituras, cada uma delas, por sua vez, divididas em distritos. As subprefeituras estão oficialmente agrupadas em nove regiões (ou "zonas"), levando em conta a posição geográfica e história da ocupação. Essas regiões são apenas utilizadas em órgãos técnicos e do governo, não sendo identificadas por qualquer comunicação visual na cidade.


Template:Subprefeituras da cidade de São Paulo

  1. Allerton and Hunts Cross
  2. Anfield
  3. Belle Vale
  4. Central
  5. Childwall
  6. Church
  7. Clubmoor
  8. County
  9. Greenbank
  10. Croxteth
  11. Everton
  12. Fazakerley
  13. Greenbank
  14. Kensington and Fairfield
  15. Kirkdale
  1. Knotty Ash
  2. Mossley Hill
  3. Norris Green
  4. Old Swan
  5. Picton
  6. Princes Park
  7. Riverside
  8. Speke-Garston
  9. St Michaels
  10. Tuebrook and Stoneycroft
  11. Warbreck
  12. Wavertree
  13. West Derby
  14. Woolton
  15. Yew Tree

External links[edit]

Babel user information
es-N Este usuario tiene una comprensión nativa del español.
en-4 This user has near native speaker knowledge of English.
fr-5 Cet utilisateur dispose d’un niveau de connaissances professionnel du français.
it-3 Questo utente può contribuire con un livello avanzato in italiano.
Users by language

The Old Testament[edit]

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4 juan Gospels Sangiovannievangelista.jpg
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  1. ^ Intel Corporation Company Profile. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e "INTEL CORP 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 14, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Employees". 2012 Annual Report. Intel. Retrieved March 14, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Intel 2007 Annual Report". Intel. 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  5. ^ Official Press Release (AMD Live! Ready and Active TV initiative)
  6. ^ Official Press Release (AMD Quad FX Platform with Dual Socket Direct Connect Architecture Redefines High-End Computing for Megatasking Enthusiasts)
  7. ^ AMD Server/Workstation platform roadmap, Retrieved October 4, 2008
  8. ^ "AMD press release". 
  9. ^ "AMD IOMMU specification 1.2" (PDF). 
  10. ^ AMD Analyst Day presentation[dead link], page 24. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  11. ^ "Jack PC page". 
  12. ^ "Intel Geneseo press release". [dead link]
  13. ^ AMD Financial Analyst Day 2007 presentation[dead link], presented by Mario Rivas, page 24 of 28. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
  14. ^ "AMD Alchemy processor product line acquired by Raza Microelectronics". TechNews ( June 14, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2007. [dead link]
  15. ^ AMD Embedded Solutions that are scalable, x86- based, low-power and feature-rich products. (November 5, 2010). Retrieved on November 9, 2010.
  16. ^ "AMD Embedded R-Series Platform". AMD ( July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  17. ^ "The Green Grid website". 
  18. ^
  19. ^ "AMD Expands Charter for the OpenSolaris OS and Sun xVM at the AMD Operating System Research Center" (Press release). AMD. May 5, 2008. 
  20. ^ "x86 Open64 Compiler Suite". AMD. April 20, 2009. 
  21. ^ "AMD Details Strategic Open Source Graphics Driver Development Initiative" (Press release). AMD. September 7, 2007. 
  22. ^ "Index of /docs/AMD". 
  23. ^ AMD Headquarters. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
  24. ^ "Advanced Micro Devices CEO Rory Read Steps Down". October 8, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014. 
  25. ^ "AMD Memory at". January 3, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  26. ^ "AMD Support Search". Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  27. ^ a b c d e "AMD Reports 2013 Fourth Quarter and Annual Results". AMD. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES INC 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 18, 2014. 
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference erneuerbare was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ a b Green energy boom in Germany
  31. ^ "Nuclear sunset?". The Irish Times. September 23, 2011.