An utraquist school or utraquist gymnasium is a term for bilingual schools in some countries, in which the subjects were taught both in a state language and in the language of some ethnic minority. The term "utraquist" here is in an analogy with the Catholic concept of utraquism (from Latin: uterque, utraque, "both"/"each (of the two)").
Such schools existed, e.g., in Poland, in areas dominated by Ukrainians and Belarusians ("Kresy Wschodnie"), and in Austria-Hungary/Austria of 19th and early 20th centuries, in the areas of numerous ethnic minorities. In both cases these types of schools were considered to be instrument of ethnic assimilation (Polonization and Germanisation respectively.) In Poland, some other utraquist schools taught in Polish and Yiddish languages. 
- Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10586-X, Google Books, p.144
- Heinz Dieter Pohl, Die ethnisch-sprachlichen Voraussetzungen der Volksabstimmung (Accessed on 3 August 2006)
- Isaac Landman (1939) The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 636: "Utraquist Schools"
|This article relating to education is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|