Verticordia, a genus of the Myrtaceae family, are woody shrubs with small and exquisite flowers. They are mostly found in Southwest Australia, with several outlier species in northern regions. A revision of the genus in 1991 produced a classification within Verticordia of 3 subgenera, 24 sections, and 102 species. Verticordia species are highly diverse in form, occupy a wide variety of habitat, and may be abundant or rare populations. Their profuse and striking display of intricate flowers have been harvested for floristry and admired as a wildflower.
The genus is best known for its flowers, often described in superlatives, which form massed displays in woodlands and heaths. These shrubs have appealed to amateur collectors and botanists, and were appreciated by the peoples of Australia before European settlement. The fringed or feathered appearance of the flowers is often enhanced by vivid and contrasting colours: this has given a common name for the genus, the Featherflowers. The variety displayed within the species, and between species in the genera is highly diverse.
The genus is part of the Myrtaceae family which exist, predominantly, in the southern hemisphere. The family was highly successful in southern Jurassic Gondwana, remaining as the highly diverse tree and woody shrub genera found in Australia. Verticordia are native to Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and are closely related to Chamelaucium, Rylstonea, and Darwinia. The genus Homoranthus, found in other states of Australia, contains two species previously supposed to be Verticordia.
The single flowers are often presented erect, these may be supported individually or grouped into tight displays of various arrangements. They may appear in succession or at once. The colour often varies as the flower ages, further adding to a painterly effect. The sepals are divided into lobes, with the exception of Verticordia verticordina, in a variety of thread-like or feathery forms. The colour of the sepals and petals is highly diverse, it may be solid, or variable, or mutable.
These may be of several colours, or solid, the striking combinations are of all colours except blue. There is no unisexual flowers in the species. Different species may be growing together, their massed displays creating painterly contrasts in flowering landscapes.
They are highly variable in appearance, often as a woody shrub, low or up to 2 metres, two tropical species are 7 metres. Branches may be upright or splayed out, sometimes pendulous, and are tightly or sparsely arranged. Leaves are very small or medium, scattered or opposite, and might be ciliated at the margin. The leaf shape is highly variable across, and these may differ at the base and floral leaves on individuals.
Verticordia are known for their feather-like or fringed flowers, the beauty of these is invariably included in any description. This has been accompanied by a high desirability as a garden plant, and as a cut flower. Restrictions exist on the collection of wildflowers in Western Australia, but previous collection of flowers for the floral industry is thought to have placed some species under duress.
They are generally somewhat difficult to grow in cultivation, but some success has been achieved. The most reliable species is V. Plumosa, the Plumed Featherflower, but many other species are found in highly specialised habitat. Outside of their natural habitat Verticordia have shown consistently good results in the temperate regions of Australia. All species require excellent drainage and prefer Mediterranean-type climate of very dry summers and wet winters.
The cultivation of Verticordia in the Eastern states of Australia has proved difficult; many of the species are intolerant of the wet summers of those regions, especially with regard to root or collar rot and moulds and mildew. The successes achieved by some growers have been through the use of bell jars, attention to soil types and potting mixes, and, experimentally, the use of grafting onto plants of related genera, such as Darwinia citriodora and Geraldton Wax, Chamelaucium uncinatum.
The name Verticordia is a term derived from Latin verto cor, translated as 'the turner of hearts'. The botanist who named the genus, A. P. de Candolle, did not record the inspiration for this description. The term has appeared as linked to the goddess Venus, a romantic allusion originating in the ancient Roman festival venus verticordia (or veneralia) on the first day of April. The myrtle of the garlands, the Roman woman's only attire in their parade, and this genus are both in the Myrtaceae family.
The genus was made available to taxonomists by the collection of Archibald Menzies, a naturalist attached to HMS Discovery during the Vancouver Expedition, from his collections at King George Sound, Oyster Bay, and the areas immediately inland. These specimens would remain undescribed for 35 years. In 1801-1802, the same region was visited by Robert Brown and Ferdinand Bauer, the naturalists aboard HMS Investigator.
Menzies specimens includes Verticordia plumosa, the second collection gave V. brownii. The species now known as Verticordia cunninghamii was collected by Allan Cunningham in 1920. The species would remain unnamed until 1826, and with the current description the next year. The early collections preceded the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829.
The first description of these early collections was by Rene Louiche Desfontaines, who placed the species into the genus Chamelaucium. Candolle identified specimens as a separate genus the next year, the reference appearing in Dictionaire Classique D'histoire Naturelle, the first two species to be described were Verticordia fontanesii and V. brownii in his Prodomus. The species are now known as Verticordia plumosa and Verticordia brownii.
In 1833 Carl von Huegel visited the colony and collected type specimens, those named Verticordia huegelii and Verticordia insignis by Stephan Endlicher. The collections of botanist Ludwig Preiss, a resident of the state, produced the current varieties: V. acerosa var. priessii, V. plumosa var. ananeotes; and the species: V. endlicheriana, V.habrantha, and V. lehmannii. Preiss visited the Molloy plains while staying with the noted collector, Georgiana Molloy, and V. lehmannii and the variety V. plumosa var. ananeotes were probably obtained there.
The genus Verticordia underwent an extensive revision by A. S. George in 1991 that described or resurrected three subgenera and 24 sections. This infrageneric classification was supported by a study into chromosome number of the species and the barriers to hybridisation. The revision greatly increased the number of taxa in the genus; 84 new species, subspecies, and varieties. In subsequent work, a subspecies of V. mitchelliana was described and a new species, Verticordia setacea was placed with V. gracilis in its previously monotypic section.
- Verticordia subgenus Chrysoma Schauer (1840)
- This subgenus is further divided into seven sections. These are sometimes described as the yellow or golden flowered Verticordia.
- Verticordia subgenus Verticordia de Candolle
- containing eleven sections.
- Verticordia subgenus Eperephes A.S George (1991)
- describes the remaining six sections.
The taxonomic arrangement of Verticordia, as outlined by George, may be summarised as follows:
- Genus Verticordia
- Subgenus Chrysoma
- Section Chrysoma
- Section Jugata
- Section Unguiculata
- Section Sigalantha
- Section Chrysorhoe
- Section Cooloomia
- Section Synandra
- Subgenus Verticordia
- Section Verticordia
- Section Corymbiformis
- Section Micrantha
- Section Infuscata
- Section Elachoschista
- Section Pencillaris
- Section Pilocosta
- Section Catocalypta
- Section Platandra
- Section Recondita
- Section Intricata
- Subgenus Eperephes
- Section Integripetala
- Section Tropica
- Section Jamiesoniana
- Section Verticordella
- Section Corynatoca
- Section Pennuligera
- Subgenus Chrysoma
- George, E.A. (2002), Verticordia: the turner of hearts: 101
- Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.; Ghisalberti, Emilio L.; Burton, Neville C. (1998). "Intergeneric Hybridism between Chamelaucium and Verticordia (Myrtaceae) Based on Analysis of Essential Oils and Morphology". Australian Journal of Botany (CSIRO) 46 (2): 201–208. doi:10.1071/BT96125.
- Elliot, Rodger (December 1999). "Shrubby Myrtles". Australian Plants online. ASGAP. Retrieved 2008-09-26.
- George, A.S. (1991) New taxa, combinations and typifications in Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae). Nuytsia 7(3): 254
- Tyagi, AP.; Mccomb, J.; Considine, J. (1991). "Cytogenetic and Pollination Studies in the Genus Verticordia DC (Abstract)". Australian Journal of Botany (CSIRO) 39 (3): 261–272. doi:10.1071/BT9910261.
- "Search on reference:nuytsia 7 1991". FloraBase. Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- A.S. George & M.D. Barrett Nuytsia Vol. 20 (2010) Two new taxa of Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae) from south-western Australia
- Elizabeth A. (Berndt) George; Margaret Pieroni (illustrator) (2002). Verticordia: The turner of hearts. Crawley: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 1-876268-46-8.
- Elizabeth George (May 2004). "Bringing Verticordia out of the Too Hard Basket". Australian Plants online - 2006. ASGAP. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- Neville Passmore (1999-02-05). "Feather Flowers Factsheet". Gardening Australia. ABC. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
- Josh Byrne (2007-11-17). "Fact Sheet: Verticordias". Gardening Australia. ABC. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
- Max Hewett (December 1995). "Verticordia in the Garden". Australian Plants online - June 2003. Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
From Australian Plants, the societies journal. Max Hewett is leader of ASGAP's Verticordia Study Group.
- "Verticordias". Botanic garden. Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority (Kings Park). 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
- Seaton, K.A. (2006). "Comparison of vase-life and ethylene response of Verticordia cut flowers". Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 81 (4): 721–727.
- "Verticordia". FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia.
- "Verticordia". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
- Verticordia Römische Mythologie, Aus Vollmer's Mythologie aller Völker, Stuttgart 1874