William E. Connolly
|Born||January 6, 1938
|Era||20th century philosophy|
|Main interests||Political theory, Political philosophy, International relations, Pluralism|
|Alma mater||University of Michigan|
|Notable ideas||"Agonistic Democracy", "Immanent Naturalism", "New Pluralism", "Neuropolitics", "Global Resonance Machines", "Critical Responsiveness"|
William E. Connolly is a political theorist known for his work on democracy and pluralism. He is the Krieger-Eisenhower Professor of Political Science at Johns Hopkins University. His 1974 work The Terms of Political Discourse won the 1999 Benjamin Lippincott Award.
Connolly was raised in the town of Flint, Michigan. His father was of one of the nearly 80,000 people who worked for General Motors in Flint during its peak years. Connolly received his B.A. from University of Michigan at Flint, and went to get his Ph.D. at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Connolly took up an Assistant Professorship at Ohio University from 1965 to 1968, then an Assistant Professorship at the University of Massachusetts Amherst from 1968-1971. He later went on to become an Associate Professor from 1971 to 1974 and Professor from 1974 to 1985. Connolly took up a professorship in 1985 at Johns Hopkins University and was the Department Chair for Political Science from 1996 to 2003. He remains the Krieger-Eisenhower Professor today. Connolly has taught as a visiting professor at numerous schools including The University of Exeter, European University Institute, Oxford University, and Boston College. His book The Terms of Political Discourse won the Benjamin Evans Lippincott Award in 1999: the book is widely held to be a major work of political theory. In 2004, he won the Fulbright Award to deliver the keynote address at the Kyoto Conference in Japan. Connolly is also a contributing writer to The Huffington Post and a founding member of the journal Theory & Event.
The theory of pluralism
Over the course of the last four decades Connolly has helped to remake the theory of pluralism. Connolly challenges older theories of pluralism by arguing for pluralization as a goal rather than as a state of affairs. Connolly's argument for the "multiplication of factions" follows James Madison's logic in engaging groups, constituencies, and voters at both the micro and macro level. Essentially, he has shifted the theory from a conservative theory of order, to a progressive theory of democratic contestation and engagement. By engaging Nietzsche and Foucault, Connolly explores the nature of democratic contestation and its relation to pluralism. A more comprehensive look on pluralism can be found in the work Pluralism.
An extensive engagement with Connolly can be found in The New Pluralism (Duke University Press, 2008), edited by David Campbell and Morton Schoolman. There Morton Schoolman, Thomas Dumm, George Kateb, Wendy Brown, Stephen White, Bonnie Honig, Roland Bleiker, Michael Shapiro, Kathy Ferguson, James Der Derian, and David Campbell engage his accounts of pluralism, cosmopolitanism, agonistic respect, subjectivity, politics and global capitalism. The book closes with an interview in which the editors invite Connolly to clarify several themes and to outline his future work. This work has been acknowledged as an authoritative text on Connolly's thought.
Connolly is one of the founders of this subfield of thought in political theory. He promotes the possibility of an "agonistic democracy", where he finds positive ways to engage certain aspects of political conflict. Connolly proposes a positive ethos of engagement, which could be used to debate political differences. Agonism is based on contestation, but in a political space where the discourse is one of respect, rather than violence. However, Connolly is cautious on speculating whether this imagination could come true, because he claims the value of such speculation is overrated. Also, his critical challenges to John Rawls's theory of justice and Jürgen Habermas's theory on deliberative democracy have spawned a host of new literature in this area. His work Identity\Difference contains an exhaustive look at positive possibilities via democratic contestation.
Connolly has explored some of the problematic aspects of secularism. He notes the predictive failure of secularists in the 1970s, who theorized it would be the most dominant view in the public sphere, only to be proven wrong by the evangelical movement that dominated politics for two decades soon after. He writes that, "Secularism is not merely the division between public and private realms that allows religious diversity to flourish in the latter. It can itself be a carrier of harsh exclusions. And it secretes a new definition of "religion" that conceals some of its most problematic practices from itself." Connolly has also written on the relationship between religion and faith in politics, arguing for non-believers to respect the views of the faithful, who make up a large portion of the electorate. His work, Why I am Not a Secularist explores some of these ideas in further detail.
There has been much criticism of Connolly's work, both positive and negative. For example, Peter Price of Monash University criticizes what he takes to be Connolly's attempt to redeem capitalism. He writes that "any system in which people's ability to obtain as much work as they want, sends the economic components of the system into inflationary spirals and other harmful consequences, treating human wastage, social and cultural damage, as a regrettable but necessary by-product, is not a system that lends itself easily to redemption". In contrast, Robert Booth Fowler, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Wisconsin, writes that to Connolly "American capitalism and Christianity work together...at all levels of society in ways which violate [Connolly's] main goals: a dramatically more egalitarian society, an environmentally responsible nation and world, and a deep respect for human diversity".
Princeton University theorist Cornel West writes that "William E. Connolly is a towering figure in contemporary political theory whose profound reflections on democracy, religion, and the tragic unsettle and enrich us."
Caleb Henry, in The Journal of Church and State, raises a few questions about Connolly's views. "Can immanent naturalism present a defensible ethic? Can his morality defend against a warrior morality? Might not a Nietzsche-influenced immanent naturalist tend towards elitism rather than egalitarianism? Can Connolly authoritatively argue that no preferences transcend cultural formation of personal identity?"
- Political Science and Ideology (1967) reissue by Transaction publishers August 2006
- The Terms of Political Discourse (1974)
- The Politicized Economy (1976) (co-authored with Michael H. Best)
- Appearance and Reality in Politics (1981)
- "Taylor, Foucault, and Otherness" Political Theory 13 (1985)
- Politics and Ambiguity (1987)
- Political Theory and Modernity (1988)
- Identity\Difference: Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox (1991)
- The Augustinian Imperative: A Reflection on the Politics of Morality (1993)
- The Ethos of Pluralization (1995)
- Why I Am Not a Secularist (1999)
- "Speed, Concentric Cultures, and Cosmopolitanism" Political Theory 28 (2000)
- Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed (2002)
- Pluralism (2005)
- "The Evangelical-Capitalist Resonance Machine" Political Theory 33 (2005)
- "Experience and Experiment" Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 135, no. 3 (2006)
- Capitalism and Christianity, American Style (Duke University Press, April 2008)
- A World of Becoming (Duke University Press, 2011)
- The Bias of Pluralism (1969)
- Social Structure and Political Theory (1974) (co-edited with Glen Gordon)
- Legitimacy and the State (1984)
- Contestations book series for Cornell University Press
- Democracy and Vision: Sheldon Wolin and the Vicissitudes of the Political (2001) (co-edited with Aryeh Botwinick)
- Chambers & Carver, Samuel & Terrell (2008). William E. Connolly: Democracy, Pluralism and Political Theory. New York: Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 9780415431231.
- Chambers & Carver, Samuel & Terrell (2008). William E. Connolly: Democracy, Pluralism and Political Theory. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415431231.
- Connolly, William (2008). Pluralism. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3567-0.
- Connolly, William (2002). Identity\Difference: Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4086-6.
- Connolly, William (2000). Why I am Not a Secularist. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3332-0.
- Price, Peter (November 2008). "Capitalism and Christianity, American Style by William E. Connolly". Eras 10. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- Fowler, Robert Booth (2009). "Book in Review: Capitalism and Christianity, American Style, by William Connolly. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008. 192 pp. $21.95 (paper)". Political Theory 37 (3): 442–445. doi:10.1177/0090591709332341. ISSN 0090-5917.
- Henry, Caleb (2009). "Capitalism and Christianity, American Style". Journal of Church and State 51 (1): 186–188. doi:10.1093/jcs/csp024. ISSN 0021-969X.
- The New Pluralism: William Connolly and the Contemporary Global Condition, ed. D. Campbell and M. Schoolman (Duke University Press, April 2008)
- Wenman, Mark Anthony (2012), "Pluralism, capitalism, and the fragility of things: an interview with William E. Connolly.", in Browning, Gary; Dimova-Cookson, Maria; Prokhovnik, Raia, Dialogues with contemporary political theorists, Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 86–104, ISBN 9780230303058