William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield
|William Morris, Viscount Nuffield|
|Viscount Nuffield of Nuffield in the county of Oxford, in the peerage of the United Kingdom|
William Richard Morris
|Mother||Emily Ann Morris|
|Born||10 October 1877
|Died||22 August 1963 (aged 85)
Nuffield, Oxfordshire, England
|Occupation||motor manufacturer and philanthropist|
William Richard Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield GBE, CH, FRS (10 October 1877 – 22 August 1963), known as Sir William Morris, Bt, between 1929 and 1934 and as The Lord Nuffield between 1934 and 1938, was a British motor manufacturer and philanthropist. He was the founder of Morris Motors Limited and is remembered as the founder of the Nuffield Foundation and Nuffield College, Oxford. He took his title, Lord Nuffield, from the village of Nuffield, Oxfordshire where he lived.
Morris was born in 1877 at 47 Comer Gardens, a terraced house in the Comer Gardens area of Worcester, about 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) north-west of the centre of Worcester, England. He was the son of Frederick Morris and his wife Emily Ann, daughter of Richard Pether. When he was three years old his family moved to 16 James Street, Oxford.
Upon leaving school at the age of fifteen Morris was apprenticed to a local bicycle-seller and repairer. Nine months later, aged 16 and declined a pay increase, he set up a business repairing bicycles in a shed at the back of his parents' house. This business being a success he opened a shop at 48, High Street and began to assemble as well as repair bicycles labelling his product with a gilt cycle wheel and The Morris. Morris raced his own machines competing as far away as South London. He didn't confine himself to one distance or time and at one point was champion of Oxford (City and County), Berkshire and Buckinghamshire for distances varying between one and fifty miles.
He began to work with motorcycles in 1901, designing the Morris Motor Cycle, and in 1902 acquired buildings in Longwall Street from which he repaired bicycles, operated a taxi service, sold, repaired and hired cars. He held the agency for Arrol-Johnston, Belsize, Humber, Hupmobile, Singer, Standard and Wolseley cars. In 1910 he built new premises - described by a local newspaper as The Oxford Motor Palace - changed his business's name from The Oxford Garage to The Morris Garage and still had to take more premises in Queen Street.
In 1912 he designed a car, the bullnose Morris and using bought-in components (including engines and axles from USA) began to build them at a disused military training college in Cowley, Oxford. The outbreak of World War I saw the nascent car factory largely given over to the production of munitions - including 50,000 minesinkers for the North Sea Minefield - but in 1919 car production revived rising from 400 cars in that year to 56,000 in 1925. Morris pioneered the introduction to the United Kingdom of Henry Ford's techniques of mass production. During the period 1919–1925 he built or purchased factories at Abingdon, Birmingham, and Swindon to add to those in Oxford.
In February 1927, in competition against — amongst others — its creator, Herbert Austin, Morris paid £730,000 for the assets of the collapsed Wolseley Motors Limited which became his personal property. Wolseley were at this stage in fairly advanced development of an overhead camshaft 8 hp car, which he launched as the first Morris Minor in 1928 (this was also the basis of the original MG Midget, launched in 1929).
When major component supplies had difficulties he purchased them on his own account. His American engines were now made under licence for him by Hotchkiss in Coventry. When in 1923 they were unwilling to expand production Morris bought their business and called it Morris Engines Limited. It would become Morris engines branch when he later sold it to Morris Motors. Again when back-axle manufacturer E G Wrigley and Company ran into financial difficulties he bought and reconstituted it as Morris Commercial Cars Limited to manufacture an expanded truck and bus offering. Following the same policy he bought the manufacturer of SU carburettors in 1926.
Impressed by American all-steel bodies he persuaded Edward G Budd of Budd Corporation to enter a joint venture with him called Pressed Steel Company which erected their large factory at Cowley opposite Morris's own and with a connecting bridge in 1926. But the two business tycoons had each met their match. Eventually in 1930 the High Court ended their disagreements by obliging Morris to surrender his and his colleagues' membership of the Pressed Steel board and all Morris holdings and Morris lost all the capital he had invested in the venture.
The Supermarine Spitfire was a technically advanced aircraft. Though ordered by the Air Ministry in March 1936 by early 1938 no single plane had been made so a vast new factory at Castle Bromwich was ordered by the Air Secretary and Morris, now Lord Nuffield, placed in charge of it. He had claimed he could produce 50 Spitfires a week but by May 1940, the height of the Battle of Britain, not one Spitfire had been built at Castle Bromwich. That month Lord Beaverbrook was placed in charge of all aircraft production, Lord Nuffield was sacked and the plant handed over to Vickers, Supermarine's parent company.
In 1938, Morris purchased the bankrupt Riley (Coventry) and Autovia companies from the Riley family and quickly sold them to his own Morris Motors Limited, with the addition of Wolseley Motors Limited later that year. After he was ennobled as Baron Nuffield the whole gallery of all his personal enterprises – he was the most famous industrialist of his age – became known as the Nuffield Organisation. Morris Motors Limited merged with Austin Motor Company in 1952 in the new holding company, British Motor Corporation, of which Nuffield was chairman for its first year. Next BMC acquired the Pressed Steel Company W R Morris had been forced from in 1930. Always a big business at the time of the merger Pressed Steel was the largest independent manufacturer of car bodies and car body tooling in the world. BMC bought Jaguar in 1966 and also that year changed its name to British Motor Holdings. In 1968, nearly every British automobile manufacturer joined with British Motor Holdings in the new holding company, British Leyland.
Morris was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1918, created a baronet, of Nuffield in the County of Oxford, in 1929 and raised to the peerage as Baron Nuffield, of Nuffield in the County of Oxford, in 1934. In 1938 he was further honoured when he was made Viscount Nuffield, of Nuffield in the County of Oxford. He was also made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1939, a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1941 and a Companion of Honour (CH) in 1958.
Personal life and philanthropy
Morris married Elizabeth Anstey on 9 April 1903 — they had no children, and he disbursed a large part of his fortune to charitable causes. In 1937 he gave £50,000 to fund the expansion of the Sea Cadet Corps (United Kingdom). He also founded the Nuffield Foundation in 1943 with an endowment of £10 million in order to advance education and social welfare. He also founded Nuffield College, Oxford. On his death the ownership of his former Oxfordshire home, Nuffield Place and its contents, passed to the Nuffield College who opened it to the public on a limited basis. Although a sale had been mooted, it has now passed to the National Trust and is open to the public on a regular basis. He is also commemorated in the Morris Motors Museum at the Oxford Bus Museum. Morris also has a building named after him at Coventry University, at Guy's Hospital London and a theatre at the University of Southampton. His home in James Street now has a blue plaque. He died in August 1963, aged 85. The baronetcy and two peerages died with him as he was childless. He was cremated, and his ashes lie in Nuffield churchyard, beside his wife's.
- Lytton P Jarman and Robin I Barraclough, The Bullnose and Flatnose Morris, David and Charles, Newton Abbot ISBN 0 7153 6665 3
- Leo McKinstry, How labour unrest nearly lost us the Battle of Britain, page 19, The Spectator, 17 November 2007.
- Overy, R. J. (2004). "Morris, William Richard, Viscount Nuffield (1877–1963)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35119. Retrieved 30 May 2013. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- "Lord Nuffield's Retirement". The Times (52498) (London). 18 December 1952. p. 6.
- The London Gazette: . 2 April 1929.
- The London Gazette: . 16 January 1934.
- The London Gazette: . 28 January 1938.
- The London Gazette: . 6 June 1941.
- Press release
- William Morris and the Joy of Giving, The Daily Telegraph, 26 April 2011.
- William Morris the humble lifestyle of Britain's greatest philanthropist, The Daily Telegraph, 27 April 2011. http://www.nuffield-place.com/Press_Release_4_April_2008.htm
- See also Save Nuffield Place website http://www.nuffield-place.com/Save%20Nuffield%20Place.htm, accessed 23 November 2009
- Blue Plaque on Lord Nuffield's former home in James Street
- "Lord Nuffield (William Morris) - History of Hedington". headington.org.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Leasor, James Wheels to Fortune - The Life and Times of William Morris, Viscount Nuffield UK 1954, 2011. ISBN 978-1-908291-24-0
- The Nuffield Foundation
- The Nuffield Trust for Forces of the Crown
- The Nuffield Trust
- Lord Nuffield and his Foundation
- Nuffield Place, home of William Morris
- Portrait of William Morris in British Pathé's movie The British Motorcar at the National Archives
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Viscount Nuffield