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The wire-tailed swallow (Hirundo smithii) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. Swallows are somewhat similar in habits and appearance to other aerial insectivores, such as the related martins and the unrelated swifts (order Apodiformes).
Wire-tailed swallow breeds in Africa south of the Sahara and in tropical southern Asia from the Indian subcontinent east to southeast Asia. It is mainly resident, but populations in Pakistan and northern India migrate further south in winter.
This species is an uncommon vagrant to Sri Lanka.
This bird is found in open country near water and human habitation. Wire-tailed swallows are fast flyers and they generally feed on insects, especially flies, while airborne. They are typically seen low over water, with which they are more closely associated than most swallows.
The neat half-bowl nests are lined with mud collected in the swallows' beaks. They are placed on vertical surfaces near water under cliff ledges or more commonly on man-made structures such as buildings and bridges.
The clutch is three to four eggs in Africa, up to five in Asia (Turner and Rose). These birds are solitary and territorial nesters, unlike many swallows, which tend to be colonial.
This species gets its name from the very long filamentous outermost tail feathers, which trail behind like two wires. Sexes manifest similar appearances, but the female has shorter "wires". Juveniles have a brown crown, back and tail. The Asian form, H. s. filifera, is larger and longer-tailed than the abundant African H. s. smithii.
Taxonomy and systematics
- H. s. smithii was first described by William Elford Leach and K. D. Koenig in 1818. Known as the African wire-tailed swallow, it is found throughout Africa.
- H. s. filifera was first described by Stephens in 1826. Also known as the Asian wire-tailed swallow, it is found in southern and southeastern Asia.
The wire-tailed swallow is a small swallow, measuring 18 cm (7 in) in length. It has bright blue upperparts, bright white underparts and a chestnut cap. Immature birds lack tail wires, and have dull brown (rather than chestnut) caps.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Hirundo smithii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Monroe, Burt (1997). A World Checklist of Birds. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-300-07083-5. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "ITIS Report: Hirundo smithii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Jobling (2010), p. 193.
- Jobling (2010), p. 358.
- Stevenson, Terry; Fanshaw, John. Birds of East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi. London, UK: A&C Black. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-7136-7347-0. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
- Birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6
- Birds of The Gambia by Barlow, Wacher and Disley, ISBN 1-873403-32-1
- Swallows and Martins by Turner and Rose, ISBN 0-7470-3202-5
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- Wire-tailed Swallow - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds.