Wirehead (science fiction)
Wirehead is a term used in science fiction works to denote different kinds of interaction between people and technology.
Known Space stories
In Larry Niven's Known Space stories, a wirehead is someone who has been fitted with an electronic brain implant (called a "droud" in the stories) to stimulate the pleasure centres of their brain. In the Known Space universe, wireheading is the most addictive habit known (Louis Wu is the only given example of a recovered addict), and wireheads usually die from neglecting themselves in favour of the ceaseless pleasure. Wireheading is so powerful and easy that it becomes an evolutionary pressure, selecting against that portion of Known Space humanity without self-control. Wireheading need not use an actual brain implant; the pleasure centre can be remotely activated by a small device called a "tasp" (important in the Ringworld novels).
Niven's stories explain wireheads by mentioning a study in which experimental rats had electrodes implanted at strategic locations in their brains, so that an applied current would induce a pleasant feeling. If the current could be obtained anytime the rats pushed the lever, they would use it over and over, ignoring food and physical necessities until they died. Such experiments were actually conducted by James Olds and Peter Milner in the 1950s, first discovering the locations of such areas, and later showing extremes to which rats would go to obtain the stimulus again.
Non-fictional experiments on humans
- 1963: "Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man." by Dr. Robert Heath.
- 1972: A 24-year-old man with temporal lobe epilepsy, identified as patient "B-19". "He was permitted to wear the device for 3 hours at a time: on one occasion he stimulated his septal region 1,200 times, on another occasion 1,500 times, and on a third occasion 900 times. He protested each time the unit was taken from him, pleading to self-stimulate just a few more times... " 
- 1986: A 48-year-old woman with chronic pain. "the patient self-stimulated throughout the day, neglecting personal hygiene and family commitments."
The Centurions (animated series)
In episode 41 "Zone Dancer" of The Centurions (TV series) animated series the lead character Crystal Kane is accused of "Zone Dancing" (The series term for computer hacking) and seen using a "droud" to interface her brain with computer networks in what is probably the first animated representation of Cyberspace and Virtual Reality. The Story written by Michael Reaves weaves a future noir tale of cyberpunk espionage, cloning and private-eye proceedural all set in the universe of the animated series and makes copious references to William Gibson's Neuromancer story. There is even a Zone Dancer named Gibson and what may be an homage to Larry Niven's Louis Wu there is even a cyberneticst named Dr. Wu.
- Drug addiction
- Mindkiller, a novel by Spider Robinson
- The Experience Machine
- Brain stimulation reward (BSR)
- The Terminal Man a novel by Michael Crichton
- Olds J, Milner P. "Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain." Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 1954 Dec; 47(6):419-27.
- Olds J. "Self-Stimulation of the Brain." Science”. 1958; 127:315-324.
- Heath, R.G. (December 1, 1963) Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man. American Journal of Psychiatry 120: 571-577.
- Moan, C.E., & Heath, R.G. (1972) Septal stimulation for the initiation of heterosexual activity in a homosexual male. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 3: 23-30.