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An émigré (French: [emigʁe]) is a person who has emigrated, often with a connotation of political or social self-exile. The word is the past participle of the French verb émigrer meaning "to emigrate".
The American Revolution
Many Loyalists that made up large portions of Colonial United States, particularly in the South, fled the United States during and after the American revolution. Common destinations were other parts of the British Empire, such as Upper Canada, Nova Scotia, Great Britain, Jamaica, and the British West Indies. The new government often awarded the lands left by the fleeing Tories to Patriot soldiers by way of land grants.
The French Revolution
Although the French Revolution began in 1789 as a bourgeois-led drive for increased political equality for the Third Estate, it soon turned into a violent popular rebellion. To escape political tensions and sometimes in fear for their lives, some emigrated from France, settling in neighboring countries, chiefly Great Britain, Spain, Germany, Austria, and Prussia. A few also migrated to North America.
Partitions of Poland and Polish uprisings
Throughout the nineteenth century Poland was occupied by the partitioning powers of Poland: Austria, Prussia and Russia. Poles struggled for independence in a series of failed uprisings, which resulted in many having to seek refuge in Western Europe (known as the Wielka Emigracja) in order to avoid reprisals, such as being forcefully sent to the vast and harsh emptiness of Siberia. The exiles included artists, soldiers, politicians and prisoners-of-war who escaped from captivity. Most of the political émigrés based themselves in France.
The Russian Revolution
Marx and Engels, drafting their strategy for future revolutions in The Communist Manifesto, suggested confiscating the property of émigrés to finance the revolution—a recommendation the Bolsheviks followed 70 years later.
After the October Revolution, more than 20,000 Russians went to Finland and Yugoslavia, notably Pyotr Wrangel. Many however moved on to France. Paris was the favourite destination for Russian émigrés. Many others traveled east to China, especially to Shanghai.
Twentieth century émigrés
Aristocrats of some European countries were forced to leave their native lands by political upheavals from the beginning of the 20th century to the end of World War II opting to emigrate elsewhere such as the Serbs and Romanians in 1945 and after, Hungarians in 1956 and the Czechs and Slovaks in 1968.
In 2016, 5,411 US citizens living in other countries relinquished their US citizenship. This is often attributed to extraterritorial laws on US citizens, such as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act of 2010.[need quotation to verify]. In comparison, there were only 235 expatriations in 2008.
After the historical electoral victory in South Africa by the ANC (African National Congress) in 1994, many Afrikaners emigrated from South Africa to other countries, citing discrimination in employment and social violence as reasons.
- U.S. Department of State. Loyalists During the American Revolution.
- Troxler, Carole Watterson (2006). Loyalists - Part 4: Loyalist Fate at War's End.
- Kåre Johan Mjør (6 May 2011). Reformulating Russia: The Cultural and Intellectual Historiography of Russian First-Wave Émigré Writers. BRILL. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-90-04-19286-7.
- Wooley, Suzanne (2017-11-06). "Americans renouncing US citizenship at record rate, Treasury Department figures reveal". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- Russell Newlove (February 9, 2016). "Why expat Americans are giving up their passports". BBC News. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Peet van Aardt (24 September 2006). "Million whites leave SA - study". 24.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/5GPER?opendocument&navpos=220