|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||94.19 g·mol−1|
|Boiling point||71 °C (160 °F; 344 K)|
|Solubility in water||Good solubility in
most organic solvents
Refractive index (nD)
|GHS signal word||Warning|
|H302, H312, H332|
|P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+312, P302+352, P304+312, P304+340, P312, P322, P330, P363, P501|
|Ethanethiol; Methanedithiol; 1,2-Ethanedithiol; 1,1,1-Ethanetrithiol; 1-hydroxy-ethanethiol; propane-1,1-dithiol|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
1,1-Ethanedithiol is a colourless but smelly liquid with formula CH3CH(SH)2. The odour is described as meaty, rubbery or like durian, and it is found in durian also. It can be produced during fermentation of grapes. It is used as a food flavouring.
Flavouring uses of ethane-1,1-dithiol may include drinks, oil, gravy, soup, meat, fruit, seasonings, and snacks. Maximum concentrations in use that are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) is five parts per million (ppm) but typical uses are around 0.2 ppm. It is supplied as a 1% solution in ethanol, due to its strong offensive smell. In the diluted form with 4% ethyl acetate and ethanol the CAS number is 69382-62-3. Toxicity may be due to metabolism products hydrogen sulfide and acetaldehyde, however as used it has a margin of safety of over 10,000,000. Other ways that it is modified in the body apart from hydrolysis is methylation to 1-methylsulfanyl-ethanethiol, oxidation of the sulfur to an ethyl sulfonate, glucuronidation of the sulfur, or combination with cysteine by way of a disulfide bridge.
Since it is used in the food industry there are codes issued by various authorities. It is identified as JECFA number 1660. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) id is 4111. The European designation for the flavouring is Fl 12.293.
The nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum shows that there are three environments for protons, in the ratio of 3:2:1 corresponding to CH3 SH and CH.
1,1-Ethanedithiol has several reactions known that are important in white wine flavours. In the presence of oxygen, 1,1-ethanedithiol is converted to cis/trans-3,6-dimethyl-1,2,4,5-tetrathiane which has a rubbery aroma. This molecule has a ring with four sulfur atoms and two carbons, two 1,1-ethanedithiol molecules become linked at their sulfur atoms with the loss of hydrogen. This can further oxidise to cis/trans-3,6-dimethyl-1,2,5-trithiolane which has a meat-like odour.
1,1-Ethanedithiol reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form cis/trans-4,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,6-pentathiepane, a ring containing five sulfur atoms and two carbons. This has a meaty smell.
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- American Chemical Society (28 November 2012). "Scientists sniff out the substances behind the aroma in the 'king of fruits'". Retrieved 1 December 2012.
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- "No 1660 Ethane-1,1-dithiol HNMR". Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Polo, Carmen (2008-11-14). Wine Chemistry and Biochemistry. Springer. pp. 604–. ISBN 9780387741161. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Food safety and quality: jecfa-flav".
- Drumm, Terri D.; Arthur M. Spanier (1991). "Changes in the content of lipid autoxidation and sulfur-containing compounds in cooked beef during storage". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 39 (2): 336–343. ISSN 0021-8561. doi:10.1021/jf00002a023.