1665 in literature
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The year 1665 in literature involved some significant literary events and new works.
- January 5 - Journal des sçavans begins publication in France, the first scientific journal.
- March - 15-year-old Nell Gwyn makes her first definitely recorded appearance on the London stage, in John Dryden's heroic drama The Indian Emperour, playing Cydaria, daughter of Montezuma and love interest to Cortez (played by her real-life lover and acting coach Charles Hart) having previously been a theatre orange-seller.
- March 6 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication in England, the first scientific journal in English.
- March 16 - Royalist William Cavendish is created Duke of Newcastle; his wife, Margaret Cavendish, becomes duchess.
- April 17 - Roger de Rabutin, Comte de Bussy (elected this year to the Académie française), begins a year's imprisonment in the Bastille for besmirching the reputation of the ladies of the French Court in Histoire amoureuse des Gaules.
- May - Nell Gwyn appears opposite Charles Hart in James Howard's Restoration comedy All Mistaken, or the Mad Couple.
- November 7 - The London Gazette is published for the first time, under the title The Oxford Gazette.
- December 4 - Jean Racine's tragedy Alexandre le Grand is premièred by Molière's troupe at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal (rue Saint-Honoré) in Paris. 11 days later, Racine moves it to the Comédiens du Roi at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, causing a rift with Molière.
- An early version of the satirical play The Rehearsal, by George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, is prepared for production in London, but is cancelled due to an outbreak of bubonic plague. In this early version, the hero, "Bilboa," mocks Sir Robert Howard; when the play is finally staged in 1672, changed conditions in the theatre world inspire a rewrite, and "Bilboa" is replaced by "Bayes," a protagonist inspired by John Dryden.
- Ye Bare & Ye Cubbe, the first play in English in the American colonies, is performed in Pungoteague, Virginia.
- Richard Head – The English Rogue described in the life of Meriton Latroon, a witty extravagant comprehending a compleat history of the most eminent cheats of both sexes
- John Crowne – Pandion and Amphigenia
- John Dryden – The Indian Emperour
- Sir Robert Howard – Four New Plays, including The Committee; Or, The Faithful Irishman
- Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery – Mustapha
- Jean Racine – Alexandre le Grand
- John Bunyan
- The End of the World, The Resurrection of the Dead and Eternal Judgment
- The Holy City or the New Jerusalem
- Robert Hooke – Micrographia
- May 1 – John Woodward, English naturalist and antiquary (died 1728)
- July 2 – Samuel Penhallow English-born American historian and chief justice (died 1726)
- December 25 – Lady Grizel Baillie, Scottish songwriter (died 1746)
- Probable year of birth
- April 21 – Jean-Joseph Surin, French devotional writer (born 1600)
- July 11 – Sir Kenelm Digby, English courtier, diplomat and national philosopher (born 1603)
- July 28 – Louis Giry, French lawyer, translator and writer (born 1595)
- September 12 – Jean Bolland, Dutch hagiographer (born 1596)
- December 2 – Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, literary hostess (born 1589)
- Unknown dates
- Hallam, Henry (1842). Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries. Harper & Brothers. p. 406.
- Howe, Elizabeth (1992). The First English Actresses: Women and Drama, 1660-1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-521-42210-8.
- The Oxford Gazette: . 7 November 1665. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
- Journal of William Caton. Retrieved 27 February 2013.