1810–19 Atlantic hurricane seasons

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The decade of the 1810s featured the 1810–19 Atlantic hurricane seasons. While data is not available for every storm that occurred, some parts of the coastline were populated enough to give data of hurricane occurrences. Each season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic basin. Most tropical cyclone formation occurs between June 1 and November 30.

1810 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) On July 30 and July 31, this tropical storm affected Jamaica.[1]

2) On August 12, a hurricane hit North Carolina. [2]

3) On August 12, a hurricane hit Trinidad, causing heavy damage. The system apparently moved to Jamaica by the 15th.[3]

4) A tropical storm hit near Charleston, South Carolina between September 11 and September 13, causing minor damage. [4]

5) A tropical cyclone strikes eastern Cuba on September 28.

6) The "Salty Storm" strikes Cuba on October 24 and 25th before continuing onward into the southwest Atlantic. The pressure at Havana falls to 29.35 in Hg[5] (994 hPa).

1811 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) The Charleston Hurricane and Tornado of 1811 A minor hurricane that struck Cuba continued onward to Charleston, South Carolina on September 10, causing many deaths, tornadoes, and crop damage as it moved across the state. Part of cluster of hurricanes struck Charleston area in 1804, 1811, 1813, 1820, and 1822. [6]

2) On October 6, a major hurricane hit near St. Augustine, Florida. Many homes were destroyed, and 35 people drowned in the sinking of a U.S. Gunboat. [7]

3) On October 11 a hurricane strikes Pensacola, Florida and Fort Stoddard, Alabama.[8]

4) A hurricane moved through the western Caribbean west of Jamaica to Cuba between October 20 and October 25. On October 26 a Spanish ship is lost at Elliot Key from a hurricane.[1]

1812 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) The June Storm of 1812. Between June 5 and June 11, a tropical storm moved through the northwest Caribbean Sea. The storm later moved to hit Louisiana on June 11-12th. [9]

2) A tropical cyclone struck Puerto Rico on July 23.[10]

3) On August 8, a tropical storm moved into South Carolina.

4) The Great Louisiana Hurricane of 1812

A tropical cyclone was sighted east of Jamaica on August 14. By August 19, it struck southeast Louisiana as a major hurricane after raking the Caribbean Islands. It passed just to the west of New Orleans, almost destroying the levee north of town. The hurricane caused severe flooding, damaged 53 boats, caused $6,000,000 in damage, and 100 deaths. The British fleet in the War of 1812 was disrupted.[11] [12]

5) There is record of another hurricane affecting Puerto Rico on August 21.

6) Later in the season, a hurricane hit Jamaica on October 12, affecting the island into the 14th. It continued northwestward, hitting Cuba on the 14th before moving into the southwest Atlantic east of Bermuda by October 17. It destroyed 500 houses and many ships.[1]

1813 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) Tropical Storm San Liborio of 1813 On 22 July, a hurricane hit Barbados, killing 18. It continued through the Antilles, affecting Puerto Rico on the 23 July, causing more damage and deaths along its path. A major hurricane, probably this same storm, struck the Bahamas on 26 July and recurved west of Bermuda by 29 July.[13]

2) A storm moved through the Leeward Islands on July 29 and then struck Jamaica on 31 July/1 August, leading to many lives lost. The hurricane moved into Belize on 3 August.

3) A tropical cyclone on 3–7 August passed near Bermuda, with the severest weather occurring on 4/5 August. It ranks the most powerful hurricane to affect the island since 1793 and forced the construction of a breakwater to prevent a similar harbor disaster from recurring; the "violent gale" drove ashore more than 30 ships. Winds were estimated at 90 mph (140 km/h) during the passage of the cyclone.[14]

4) A powerful hurricane hit Dominica and Martinique beginning August 25, causing 3000 deaths. The hurricane moved south of Jamaica, bringing wind to the island on August 28.

5) The Charleston Hurricane of 1813 or Hurricane Santa Juana of 1813 Hurricane affected Dominica before passing close to Puerto Rico on August 21st. The system affected the Caicos Islands on August 24 and moved northwest as a compact major hurricane to strike near Charleston, South Carolina on August 27, causing many deaths due to drowning.Part of cluster of hurricanes struck Charleston area in 1804, 1811, 1813, 1820, and 1822. The storm passed northward through the Mid-Atlantic States by 29 August.[1] [15]

6) A major hurricane hit northeast Florida or southeast Georgia on 16 September, causing strong storm surge and 50 casualties. [16]

1814 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) A minimal hurricane hit South Carolina on July 1, causing 1 tornado.

2) Tropical Storm San Liborio A hurricane struck Dominica and Puerto Rico one year later on the same day from the one on 1813 on July 23. Affected the south side of the island more, destroyed many crops after a 7 month drought.

3) A hurricane affected Bermuda for four days around October 10. (from Beware the Hurricane) {USS Wasp (1814)Probably lost in storm}

1815 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) A tropical cyclone impacted Puerto Rico on August 30.[8]

2) The North Carolina Hurricane of 1815

Cape Lookout, North Carolina was hit by a major hurricane on September 3.[17] It moved northeastward across the state, reaching the Atlantic Ocean near Maryland.It weakened over land to a tropical storm, but still brought gusty winds to New England. It caused at least 4 deaths. [18]

3) A tropical cyclone struck Puerto Rico on September 15.[8]

4) The Great September Gale of 1815

A major hurricane was located off the coast of Virginia moving northward. It hit Long Island, New York on September 23, causing damage and destruction throughout New England. At least 20 deaths occurred, though "The loss of life was so heavy that the newspapers did not have space enough to give all the details of the marine disasters." Reported to be similar or stronger in size and in strength as the 1635 Great Colonial hurricane. Next hurricane of this strength wouldn't hit New England again until 1938. [19]

5) A tropical storm was located off the coast of South Carolina on September 28, but did not make landfall.

6) From October 17 until October 19 Jamaica was hit by a hurricane. It drifted over the island, causing 100 deaths.

7) A minor hurricane hit Saint-Barthélemy on October 18. It turned northwestward, and moved up the Chesapeake Bay on October 24, delaying ships' arrivals.

1816 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

Records from ship logs have determined both 1815 and 1816 were active hurricane seasons, with at least 12 tropical cyclones ascribed to 1816 alone. This is some evidence that a northward-displaced Intertropical Convergence Zone appears to be partially responsible for the increased tropical cyclone activity in 1816, which was the famed Year Without a Summer.[20]

1) June 5–8: A hurricane brushed the Florida Keys, causing the loss of 5 ships.[5] Interestingly, it appears to have been lured northward by an unusual June snowstorm across New England.[21]

2) Haiti, around Port-au-Prince, was struck by a hurricane on August 18.[22]

3) Martinique, eastern Cuba, and South Carolina were lashed by a hurricane between September 3 and September 11.[1]

4) A tropical storm affected Virginia on September 18 before moving northeast into New York. The tropical storm caused heavy flooding in the James River area.

5) Hurricane San José de Cupertino of 1816 There is record of a hurricane moving by Dominica[1] and Barbados[23] on September 15 before devastating Puerto Rico on September 18. [1]. The hurricane then hit eastern North Carolina on September 23 wrecking nine vessels at Ocracoke Bar. [24]

6) On October 16–17, a severe gale was experienced in Dominica and Martinique. During the storm, an earthquake shook the region.[23]

1817 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) A hurricane was first observed near Tobago on August 1[1] before continuing through the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico by August 6. It crossed over Florida, and when it reached the western Atlantic, it paralleled the coastlines of Georgia and South Carolina. It moved inland over southern North Carolina, and brought heavy rain to the Norfolk, Virginia area, delaying mail delivery and causing flooding through the mid-Atlantic as it moved northward into Pennsylvania by August 9. Its track appears similar to that of Hurricane Charley of August 2004.

2) Barbados was struck by a hurricane on October 21, causing 250 deaths as it moved through the Lesser Antilles. The hurricane subsequently moved into Nicaragua by October 26.[1]

1818 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) A hurricane passed through the central Atlantic east of Bermuda to south and east of the Azores between August 26 and September 5.[1] It reportedly silted at Hamilton Harbor on Bermuda. (from Beware the Hurricane)

2) The Lafitte Hurricane at Galveston in 1818 A hurricane passed by the Cayman Islands in early September. It crossed the Yucatán Peninsula, and turned northwest when it reached the Bay of Campeche. The hurricane intensified to a Category 2–3 before hitting Galveston, Texas on September 12 and continuing onward to Mississippi. The hurricane was "quite severe", destroying all but six houses on Galveston Island. First reported tropical storm to impact Galveston island since 1766, Galveston would be impacted by major hurricanes many additional times again in 1837, 1854, 1867, 1873, 1886, 1900, 1915, 1961, and 2008. [25]

3) Tropical Storm San Mauricio of 1818 A tropical cyclone seriously affected Puerto Rico on 22 September. It possibly recurved sharply offshore the Eastern Seaboard; the frigate Macedonian encountered a hurricane on 26/27 September east-northeast of Bermuda. The breeze freshened that afternoon as the ship lay near 35.6N 55.7W. By sunset, waves increased to 9 feet (2.7 m), and southeast gales lashed the system after midnight on the 27 September. Winds continued to increase into that afternoon, as seas increased to 18 feet (5.5 m). One man fell overboard by 5 pm and drowned. The hurricane reached its full violence by 10 pm, splitting the storm staysails and making the rigging useless. The main mast cracked under the strain by 2 am on the 28 September, and the mizzenmast followed suit by 4 am. Seawater poured into the ship from all sides, as the wooden hull twisted under the force of the 40-foot (12 m) waves. The ship finally cleared the storm without capsizing by noon, and her crew again saw sunset on the evening of 29 September.[26]

4) A hurricane on 12–14 October affected Jamaica and the central Bahamas.[1][27]

5) Between November 6 and November 13, another hurricane moved across the southwest Caribbean Sea into Jamaica and Cuba.[1] A hurricane struck Jamaica on 18–20 November.[28]

1819 Atlantic hurricane season[edit]

1) Bay St. Louis Hurricane of 1819 The exact origin of this hurricane is unknown, but it likely formed off the coast of Cuba before heading on a west-northwest track towards the Gulf Coast. A small hurricane, it reached an estimated Category 3–4 strength before making landfall on July 27 in southeastern Louisiana, bringing heavy winds and a 5–6 ft storm surge. The hurricane continued northeastward, making a second landfall in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi before dissipating inland. Known as one of the most destructive hurricanes to affect the United States during the first half of the 19th century, the Bay St. Louis Hurricane caused severe damage across Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, leaving behind the remains of shattered buildings and uprooted trees. Several vessels (from small boats to 60-ton brigs) were driven ashore by the hurricane's storm surge. One of them was the capsizing of the U.S. warship USS Firebrand, drowning 39 sailors. Several U.S. soldiers were caught off guard by the hurricane and perished in its midst. There were also reports of people being attacked by alligators, snapping turtles, and snakes, which further added to the death toll. The hurricane caused over $100,000 dollars (1819 US dollars) in damage, and killed between 43 and 175 people, some of them later found washed up across the Gulf Coast. [29]

2) Hurricane San Mateo of 1819 Between September 19 and September 26, hurricane San Mateo tracked through the northeast Lesser Antilles and southwest of Bermuda. During September 21 and September 22, this hurricane hit the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. [10] In San Tomas about 101 ships were sunk. In Puerto Rico, the storm destroyed most of the houses and most of the crops in the fields.[30]

3) A tropical storm hit between New Orleans and Apalachicola in September.

4) From October 13 to October 15, a hurricane passed through the Leeward Islands.

5) A hurricane is recorded to have struck Cuba on October 27 before moving onward to the Bahamas on October 28.[1]


In 1819 Harvard professor John Farrar published a 1819 article in the Quarterly Journal of Literature, Science and the Arts (pg 104) that concluded from the September 23rd 1815 hurricane (The Great September Gale) that a hurricane is a cyclone and spins in a counter-clockwise direction and appeared to be a moving vortex and not the rushing forward of a great body in the atmosphere. [31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

World Wide Web[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chenoweth, Michael (2006). "A Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity: 1700–1855" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-9005-2. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  2. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 192
  3. ^ The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492–1996
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b Hurricanes in the Florida Keys
  6. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 57-58
  7. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 192
  8. ^ a b c Ricardo Garcia-Herrera; Luis Gimeno; Pedro Ribera; Emiliano Hernandez (November 29, 2004). "New records of Atlantic hurricanes from Spanish documentary sources". Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  9. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 193
  10. ^ a b Caribben Atmospheric Research Center. "Tropical storms and hurricanes that passed within 2 degrees latitude of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands from 1515-2004". University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus. Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  11. ^ Kevin Myatt (October 26, 2006). "Did tornado wreak havoc on War of 1812?". Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2008. 
  12. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 75
  13. ^ Chenoweth, Michael (1998). "The early 19th century climate of the Bahamas and a comparison with 20th century averages". Climatic Change. 40 (3-4): 577–603. doi:10.1023/a:1005371320672. 
  14. ^ Beware the Hurricane. 
  15. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 59
  16. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 193
  17. ^ Hairr, John (2008). The Great Hurricanes of North Carolina. Charleston, SC: History Press. pp. 41–48. ISBN 978-1-59629-391-5. 
  18. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 113-114
  19. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 77-81
  20. ^ Chenoweth, Michael (September 1996). "Ship’s Logbooks and "the Year Without a Summer"". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Elkridge, Maryland: American Meteorological Society. 77 (9): 2077–2093. Bibcode:1996BAMS...77.2077C. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<2077:slaywa>2.0.co;2. 
  21. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20021218082831/http://www.umaine.edu/maineclimate/newsletters/html/June_2002_Newsletter_txt.htm
  22. ^ Haiti: List of Disasters
  23. ^ a b hurricane
  24. ^
  25. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 136
  26. ^ James Tertius de Kay, 2000: Chronicles of the Frigate Macedonian 1809–1922. New York: W. W. Norton, p. 129–139.
  27. ^ A Time Line of Jewish Jamaica
  28. ^ "Hurricanes in Jamaica, West Indies". Monthly Weather Review. 28 (12): 550. 1900. Bibcode:1900MWRv...28Q.550.. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1900)28[550a:HIJWI]2.0.CO;2Hurricanes in Jamaica, West Indies 
  29. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 136-137
  30. ^ Mújica-Baker, Frank. Huracanes y Tormentas que han afectadi a Puerto Rico (PDF). Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el manejo de Emergencias y Administracion de Desastres. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  31. ^ Greatest and Deadliest Hurricanes of the Caribbean and the Americas, Neely 2017, pg 220

Books[edit]

  • David Longshore. "Bay St. Louis Hurricane." Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons and Cyclones. David Longshore. New York: Facts on File, 1998, p. 33–34.
  • Terry Tucker. Beware the Hurricane! The Story of the Gyratory Tropical Storms That Have Struck Bermuda. Bermuda: Hamilton Press, 1966, p. 77–87.

External links[edit]