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Chemical structure of 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline, a common form of HAQ

4-Hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) are a class of intracellular signaling molecules associated with iron chelation. HAQs are produced by various types of bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa,[1] and are involved in quorum sensing.

The overproduction of these molecules, with their pro-oxidative effects, leads to antibiotic properties.


  1. ^ Luckner, M.; Ritter, C. (1965). "Biosynthesis of the 2-n-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinolines by Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Tetrahedron Letters. 12: 741–744. doi:10.1016/s0040-4039(01)83977-0.