A. M. Skeffington

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Arthur Marten Skeffington (1890 - 1976) was an American optometrist known to some as "the father of behavioral optometry".[1][2] Skeffington has been credited as co-founding the Optometric Extension Program with E.B. Alexander in 1928.[2] In the mid-1950s, Skeffington first diagrammed his "four circles" model of describing visual processing.[3]


The College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) awards the yearly Skeffington Award in his honor, to be awarded to an individual who has made outstanding contributions to optometric literature in the areas of vision therapy and vision development.[4]

Furthermore, there is a yearly Kraskin Invitational Skeffington Symposium on Vision.[5]


  1. ^ http://www.kingkong.demon.co.uk/ngcoba/sk.htm [Note: Confirms dates of birth and death - "Arthur Marten SKEFFINGTON (M: 1890 - 1976)".
  2. ^ a b "A.M. Skeffington, O.D.: The Father of Behavioral Optometry." Archived October 17, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Visionaries (Reprinted from January–December 1991 Issues of Review of Optometry). Retrieved September 19, 2006.
  3. ^ Merrill D. Bouwan (August 8, 1999). "Integrating Vision with Other Senses". Neurodevelopmental Optometry. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
  4. ^ The Skeffington Award, COVD Blog. November 4, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
  5. ^ Kraskin Invitational Skeffington Symposium on Vision

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