AII amacrine cells
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AII amacrine cells are a subtype of amacrine cells present in the retina of mammals. AII amacrine cell serve the critical role of transferring light signals from rod photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells (which contain the axons of the optic nerve)
- In scoptic conditions, if a rod photoreceptor receives light in scotopic (dark) conditions, it will hyperpolarise.
- The rod photoreceptor synapses with the rod bipolar cell.[note 1] [note 2]
- This rod bipolar cell will directly (exclusively) synapse with an AII amarcine cell in sublamina B (within the inner plexiform layer)[note 3]
- The AII amacrine cells becomes activated (i.e., it depolarises) when light stimulates a rod.
(Once activated, the AII amacrine cell then modulates the cone ON and OFF channels):
- In sublamina A, the dendrites of the AII amacrine cell usually form inhibitory synapses onto the OFF-cone bipolar cells [note 4]
Note: A small proportion of rods contact the cone bipolar cells directly.
- There is only one type of rod bipolar cell: an ON-bipolar cell
- This is a 'sign-inverting' synapse.
- This is a 'sign-conserving' synapse.
- This is usually a reciprocal synapse
- Farsaii M, Connaughton VP (July 2011). "AII Amacrine Cells". webvision.med.utah.edu.
- Marc RE, Anderson JR, Jones BW, Sigulinsky CL, Lauritzen JS (4 September 2014). "The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 8: 104. doi:10.3389/fncir.2014.00104. PMC . PMID 25237297.