Abraham and the Idol Shop
Abraham and the Idol Shop appears in Genesis Rabbah chapter 38 and is a biblical commentary on the early life of Abraham. The commentary explains what happened to Abraham when he was a young boy working in his father's idol shop. The story has been used as a way to discuss monotheism and faith in general.
Abraham is the first patriarch and is seen as the father of the four Abrahamic religions, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith. The later life of Abraham is told in the book of Genesis Chapters 11-25. The missing years of his early childhood are explained through a series of Midrashim.
Terah is a Biblical figure from the book of Genesis. He is the father of three children including the Patriarch Abraham. According to Jewish tradition Terah was an idolater. In addition, Terah also made and sold idols  as this Midrash explains.
Nimrod is a descendant of Noah and is considered to be a "mighty one on the earth." There is no description of a biblical interaction between Nimrod and Abraham, but according to many Jewish and Islamic sources the two met, and their meeting was a symbol of the confrontation between either good (Abraham) and evil (Nimrod) or monotheism (Abraham) and polytheism (Nimrod).
Basis of the Midrash
The Midrash is based on Genesis 11:28 “And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.” The question the rabbis are trying to answer with the Midrash is why and how did Haran die in the presence of his father.
Content of the Midrash
According to Genesis Rabbah 38.13 R. Hiyya, a first generation Jewish sage, tells the following story:
Terah was an idol manufacturer who once went away and left Abraham in charge of the store. A man walked in and wished to buy an idol. Abraham asked him how old he was and the man responded “fifty years old.” Abraham then said, “You are fifty years old and would worship a day old statue!” At this point the man left ashamed.
Later, a woman walked into the store and wanted to make an offering to the idols. So Abraham took a stick, smashed the idols and placed the stick in the hand of the largest idol. When Terah returned he asked Abraham what happened to all the idols. Abraham told him that a woman came in to make an offering to the idols. Then the idols argued about which one should eat the offering first. Then the largest idol took the stick and smashed the other idols.
Terah responded by saying that they are only statues and have no knowledge. Whereupon Abraham responded by saying that you deny their knowledge, yet you worship them! At which point Terah took Abraham to Nimrod.
Nimrod proclaims to Abraham that we should worship fire. Abraham responds that water puts out fire. So Nimrod declares they worship water. Abraham responds that clouds hold water. So Nimrod declares they worship clouds. Abraham responds that wind pushes clouds. So Nimrod declares they worship wind. Abraham responds that people withstand wind.
Nimrod becomes angry with Abraham and declares that Abraham shall be cast into the fire, and if Abraham is correct that there is a real God, that God will save him. Then Abraham is cast into the fire and is saved by God.
Abraham’s brother Haran sees what happened and says that he believes in the God of Abraham, is thrown into the fire, and is not saved by God. Hence the verse in Genesis 11:28 “And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.”  The Midrash is not the only mention of this story - the Quran discusses the story in great depth.
Discussions relating to the Midrash
There are several different ways in which this Midrash has been discussed. This Midrash can be interpreted as an example of persecution against those of monotheistic beliefs in a time where polytheism dominated.
The midrash has also been discussed in the contexts of complete, unquestioned faith. This comes from the idea that Abraham did not need proof of God before being cast into the fire, which is why God saved him. On the other hand, Haran needed to see that Abraham would be saved by God before believing, and because of this, Haran was not saved from the fire by God.
The Midrash is also used by James Kugel, the chair of the Institute for the History of the Jewish Bible at Bar Ilan University in Israel, in his book The Bible As It Was, published in 1997 by Harvard University, to look at how stories from the bible have been changed to how they are taught in the modern day. His analysis deals with how in modern day, Abraham became seen as the only monotheist. Kugel's interpretation continues in the tradition of looking at this midrash as part of the analysis of monotheism.