# Abrasion (mechanical)

Abrasion is the process of scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, or rubbing away. It can be intentionally imposed in a controlled process using an abrasive. Abrasion can be an undesirable effect of exposure to normal use or exposure to the elements.

## In stone shaping

Ancient artists, working in stone, used abrasion to create sculptures. The artist selected dense stones like carbonite and emery and rubbed them consistently against comparatively softer stones like limestone and granite. The artist used different sizes and shapes of abrasives, or turned them in various ways as they rubbed, to create effects on the softer stone's surface. Water was continuously poured over the surface to carry away particles. Abrasive technique in stone shaping was a long, tedious process that, with patience, resulted in eternal works of art in stone.

## Models

The Archard equation is a simple model used to describe sliding wear and is based on the theory of asperity contact.[1]

${\displaystyle Q={\frac {KWL}{H}}}$

where:

Q is the total volume of wear debris produced
K is the wear coefficient
W is the total normal load
L is the sliding distance
H is the hardness of the softest contacting surfaces

K is obtained from experimental results and depends on several parameters. Among them are surface quality, chemical affinity between the material of two surfaces, surface hardness process, heat transfer between two surfaces and others.

## Abrasion resistance

The resistance of materials and structures to abrasion can be measured by a variety of test methods.[2] These often use a specified abrasive or other controlled means of abrasion. Under the conditions of the test, the results can be reported or can be compared items subjected to similar tests.

Such standardized measurements can produce two quantities: abrasion rate and normalized abrasion rate (also called abrasion resistance index). The former is the amount of mass lost per 1000 cycles of abrasion. The latter is the ratio of former with the known abrasion rate for some specific reference material.[3]

One type of instrument used to get the abrasion rate and normalized abrasion rate is the abrasion scrub tester, which is made up of a mechanical arm, liquid pump, and programmable electronics. The machine draws the mechanical arm with attached brush (or sandpaper, sponge, etc.) over the surface of the material that is being tested. The operator sets a pre-programmed number of passes for a repeatable and controlled result. The liquid pump can provide detergent or other liquids to the mechanical arm during testing to simulate washing and other normal uses.[4]

The use of proper lubricants can help control abrasion in some instances. Some items can be covered with an abrasion-resistant material. Controlling the cause of abrasion is sometimes an option.

## Standards

### ASTM

• ASTM B611 Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented Carbides[5]
• ASTM C131 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine[6]
• ASTM C448 Standard Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Porcelain Enamels
• ASTM C535 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Large-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine[7]
• ASTM C944 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Concrete or Mortar Surfaces by the Rotating-Cutter Method
• ASTM C1027 Standard Test Method for Determining Visible Abrasion Resistance of Glazed Ceramic Tile
• ASTM C1353 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Dimension Stone Subjected to Foot Traffic Using a Rotary Platform, Double-Head Abraser
• ASTM D968 Standard Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Falling Abrasive
• ASTM D1630 Standard Test Method for Rubber Property — Abrasion Resistance (Footwear Abrader)[8]
• ASTM D2228 Standard Test Method for Rubber Property - Relative Abrasion Resistance by the Pico Abrader Method[9]
• ASTM D3389 Standard Test Method for Coated Fabrics Abrasion Resistance (Rotary Platform Abrader)[10]
• ASTM D4060 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser[11]
• ASTM D4158 Standard Guide for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics],[12]
• ASTM D4966 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics
• ASTM D5181 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Printed Matter by the GA-CAT Comprehensive Abrasion Tester
• ASTM D5264 Standard Practice for Abrasion Resistance of Printed Materials by the Sutherland Rub Tester[13]
• ASTM D5963 Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Abrasion Resistance (Rotary Drum Abrader)[14]
• ASTM D6279 Standard Test Method for Rub Abrasion Mar Resistance of High Gloss Coatings
• ASTM D7428 Standard Test Method for Resistance of Fine Aggregate to Degradation by Abrasion in the Micro-Deval Apparatus
• ASTM F1486 Standard Practice for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Office Products
• ASTM F1978 Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Resistance of Metallic Thermal Spray Coatings by Using the Taber Abraser[15]
• ASTM G56 Standard Test Method for Abrasiveness of Ink-Impregnated Fabric Printer Ribbons and Other Web Materials[16]
• ASTM G65 Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus[17]
• ASTM G75 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slurry Abrasivity (Miller Number) and Slurry Abrasion Response of Materials (SAR Number)[18]
• ASTM G81 Standard Test Method for Jaw Crusher Gouging Abrasion Test[19]
• ASTM G99 Standard Test Method for Wear Testing with a Pin-on-Disk Apparatus[20]
• ASTM G105 Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Tests[21]
• ASTM G132 Standard Test Method for Pin Abrasion Testing[22]
• ASTM G171 Standard Test Method for Scratch Hardness of Materials Using a Diamond Stylus[23]
• ASTM G174 Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Resistance of Materials by Abrasive Loop Contact[24]

### DIN

• DIN 53516 Testing of Rubber and Elastomers; Determination of Abrasion Resistance[9]

### ISO

• ISO 4649 Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic -- Determination of abrasion resistance using a rotating cylindrical drum device[25]
• ISO 9352 Plastics -- Determination of resistance to wear by abrasive wheels[26]
• ISO 28080 Hardmetals -- Abrasion tests for hardmetals[27]
• ISO 23794 Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic -- Abrasion testing -- Guidance[28]
• ISO 21988:2006 Abrasion-resistant cast irons. Classification
• ISO 28080:2011 Hardmetals. Abrasion tests for hardmetals
• ISO 16282:2008 Methods of test for dense shaped refractory products. Determination of resistance to abrasion at ambient temperature

### JSA

• JIS A 1121 Method of test for resistance to abrasion of coarse aggregate by use of the Los Angeles machine[29]
• JIS A 1452 Method of abrasion test for building materials and part of building construction (falling sand method)[30]
• JIS A 1453 Method of abrasion test for building materials and part of building construction (abrasive-paper method)[31]
• JIS A 1509-5 Test methods for ceramic tiles -- Part 5: Determination of resistance to deep abrasion for unglazed floor tiles[32]
• JIS A 1509-6 Test methods for ceramic tiles -- Part 6: Determination of resistance to surface abrasion for glazed floor tiles[33]
• JIS C 60068-2 Environmental testing -- Part 2: Tests -- Test Xb: Abrasion of markings and letterings caused by rubbing of fingers and hands[34]
• JIS H 8682-1 Test methods for abrasion resistance of anodic oxide coatings on aluminium and aluminium alloys -- Part 1: Wheel wear test[35]
• JIS H 8682-2 Test methods for abrasion resistance of anodic oxide coatings on aluminium and aluminium alloys -- Part 2: Abrasive jet test[36]
• JIS H 8682-3 Test methods for abrasion resistance of anodic oxide coatings on aluminium and aluminium alloys -- Part 3: Sand-falling abrasion resistance test[37]
• JIS K 5600-5-8 Testing methods for paints -- Part 5: Mechanical property of film -- Section 8: Abrasion resistance (Rotating abrasive-paper-covered wheel method)[38]
• JIS K 7204 Plastics -- Determination of resistance to wear by abrasive wheels[39]

• Abrasion (geology) – Process of erosion
• Abrasive – Rough material used to shape or finish objects by friction
• Abrasive blasting – Method of marking or cleaning a surface
• Archard equation – Model used to describe wear
• Erosion – Natural processes that remove soil and rock
• Wear – Damaging, gradual removal or deformation of material at solid surfaces

## References

1. ^ Archard, J. F. (1953-08-01). "Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces". Journal of Applied Physics. 24 (8): 981–988. doi:10.1063/1.1721448. ISSN 0021-8979.
2. ^ "Abrasion Methods Available at ARDL". Archived from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
3. ^ S. Grynko, "Material Properties Explained" (2012), ISBN 1-4700-7991-7, p. 2.
4. ^ "Abrasion Scrub Tester for testing the resistance to abrasion of coated surfaces". www.byk.com. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
5. ^ "ASTM B611 - 13 Standard Test Method for Determining the High Stress Abrasion Resistance of Hard Materials". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
6. ^
7. ^ "ASTM C535 - 16 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Large-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
8. ^ "ASTM D1630 - 16 Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Abrasion Resistance (Footwear Abrader)". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
9. ^ a b "Abrasion Methods Available at ARDL". 20 January 2013. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
10. ^ "ASTM D3389 - 16 Standard Test Method for Coated Fabrics Abrasion Resistance (Rotary Platform Abrader)". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
11. ^ "ASTM D4060 - 14 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
12. ^ "ASTM D4158 - 08(2016) Standard Guide for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Uniform Abrasion)". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
13. ^ "ASTM D5264 - 98(2011) Standard Practice for Abrasion Resistance of Printed Materials by the Sutherland Rub Tester". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
14. ^ "ASTM D5963 - 04(2015) Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Abrasion Resistance (Rotary Drum Abrader)". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
15. ^
16. ^ "ASTM G56 Standard Test Method for Abrasiveness of Ink-Impregnated Fabric Printer Ribbons and Other Web Materials". astm.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
17. ^ "ASTM G65 - 16 Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
18. ^ "ASTM G75 - 15 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slurry Abrasivity (Miller Number) and Slurry Abrasion Response of Materials (SAR Number)". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
19. ^ "ASTM G81 - 97a(2013) Standard Test Method for Jaw Crusher Gouging Abrasion Test". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
20. ^ "ASTM G99 - 17 Standard Test Method for Wear Testing with a Pin-on-Disk Apparatus". Archived from the original on 2016-04-13.
21. ^ "ASTM G105 - 16 Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Tests". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
22. ^ "ASTM G132 - 96(2013) Standard Test Method for Pin Abrasion Testing". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
23. ^ "ASTM G171 - 03(2009)e2 Standard Test Method for Scratch Hardness of Materials Using a Diamond Stylus". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
24. ^ "ASTM G174 - 04(2009)e1 Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Resistance of Materials by Abrasive Loop Contact". www.ASTM.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
25. ^ "Scope of Accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005" (PDF). 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
26. ^ "ISO 9352:2012 - Plastics -- Determination of resistance to wear by abrasive wheels". www.ISO.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
27. ^ "ISO 28080:2011 - Hardmetals -- Abrasion tests for hardmetals". www.ISO.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
28. ^ "ISO 23794:2003 - Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic -- Abrasion testing -- Guidance". www.ISO.org. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
29. ^ "JSA Web Store - JIS A 1121:2007 Method of test for resistance to abrasion of coarse aggregate by use of the Los Angeles machine". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
30. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
31. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
32. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
33. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
34. ^ "JSA Web Store - JIS C 60068-2-70:2007 Environmental testing -- Part 2: Tests -- Test Xb: Abrasion of markings and letterings caused by rubbing of fingers and hands". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
35. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
36. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
37. ^ "JSA Web Store-Message". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
38. ^ "JSA Web Store - JIS K 5600-5-8:1999 Testing methods for paints -- Part 5: Mechanical property of film -- Section 8: Abrasion resistance (Rotating abrasive-paper-covered wheel method)". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
39. ^ "JSA Web Store - JIS K 7204:1999 Plastics -- Determination of resistance to wear by abrasive wheels". www.webstore.JSA.or.jp. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
• “Wear Processes in Manufacturing”, Badahur and Magee, ASTM STP 1362, 1999