Adivasi Cobra Force

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Adivasi Cobra Force
Participant in the Insurgency in Northeast India
Active 7 July 1996 (1996-07-07)–present
Ideology Adivasi interests
Area of operations Lower Assam, India
Size 100[1]–350[2]
Opponents  India
Battles and wars Insurgency in Northeast India

The Adivasi Cobra Force (abbreviated ACF), also known as the Adivasi Cobra Militant Force (abbreviated ACMF), is an insurgent group active in Lower Assam, India, with the claimed objective of protecting the Adivasi people through armed combat.[1]


In the late 1990s, Assam was beset by various ethnic riots between Bodos and Santhals. The Bodos began joining groups such as the National Democratic Front of Bodoland and the Bodo Liberation Tigers Force. In early 1996, over 100 Santal tribals were killed in riots.[3] In response, the Santals, claiming threats to their interests formed many groups with other Naga tribes in the area and the ACF was formed on 7 July 1996.[2]


The ACF does not espouse any political ideology nor is it separatist like many other groups in the Seven Sister States. It claims to be an outlet to protect the tribals who were allegedly "ethnically cleansed" during the 1996 riots from Bodo organizations. They demand reparations for the Santals displaced by and killed in the riots and demand that "adivasis" be recognized as a protected people by the Government of India.[4]


Estimates of the number of operatives in the organization range from 100[1] to 350.[2] The group operates out of Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts. The commander of the organization is Durga Minz and the chairman is Xabrias Khakha. The other main leader is Kandu Murmu.[1]


The organization has a large training program in Bhutan. In 2000, Indian Security Forces destroyed an ACF camp in Kokrajhar; however, one year later, they completed a large-scale extortion drive in Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon and Dhubri to fund the terror camp in Bhutan.

Their attacks mainly target the Assamese government and Bodo militants.

On 9 September 2001 the group signed a cease-fire with the Government of India which was to last until January 2002. The ceasefire held until 2004 and was then extended by the Government of India on 1 July 2004.[5] In 2005, chairman Xabrias Khakha said that the ACF was considering becoming a legitimate political party to contest elections in Assam.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d "Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF)". 
  2. ^ a b c d "Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF)". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. 
  3. ^ Bloodshed in Assam Frontline — Sep. 26 — Oct. 09, 1998
  4. ^ Three Essays on the Economics and Finance of Terrorism — Gokhale Institute of Politics & Economics
  5. ^ Ceasefire extended The Hindu — 2 July 2004