Adivasi Cobra Force
The Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF) also known as the Adivasi Cobra Militant Force (ACMF) is a militant organization with the claimed objective of protecting the Adivasi people of Lower Assam, India through armed combat.
In the late 1990s, Assam was beset by various ethnic riots between Bodos and Santhals. The Bodos began joining groups such as the National Democratic Front of Bodoland and the Bodo Liberation Tigers Force. In early 1996, over 100 Santal tribals were killed in riots. In response, the Santals, claiming threats to their interests formed many groups with other Naga tribes in the area and the ACF was formed on 7 July 1996.
The ACF does not espouse any political ideology nor is it separatist like many other groups in the Seven Sister States. It claims to be an outlet to protect the tribals who were allegedly "ethnically cleansed" during the 1996 riots from Bodo organizations. They demand reparations for the Santals displaced by and killed in the riots and demand that "adivasis" be recognized as a protected people by the Government of India.
Estimates of the number of operatives in the organization range from 100 to 350. The group operates out of Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts. The commander of the organization is Durga Minz and the chairman is Xabrias Khakha. The other main leader is Kandu Murmu.
The organization has a large training program in Bhutan. In 2000, Indian Security Forces destroyed an ACF camp in Kokrajhar; however, one year later, they completed a large-scale extortion drive in Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon and Dhubri to fund the terror camp in Bhutan.
On 9 September 2001 the group signed a cease-fire with the Government of India which was to last until January 2002. The ceasefire held until 2004 and was then extended by the Government of India on 1 July 2004. In 2005, chairman Xabrias Khakha said that the ACF was considering becoming a legitimate political party to contest elections in Assam.
- Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF) — SATP
- Bloodshed in Assam Frontline — Sep. 26 — Oct. 09, 1998
- Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF) Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. — MIPT
- Three Essays on the Economics and Finance of Terrorism — Gokhale Institute of Politics & Economics
- Ceasefire extended The Hindu — 2 July 2004