Aircraft disinsection

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Aircraft disinsection is the use of insecticide on international flights and in other closed spaces for insect and disease control. Confusion with disinfection, the elimination of microbes on surfaces, is not uncommon.[1] Insect vectors of disease, mostly mosquitoes, have been introduced into and become indigenous in geographic areas where they were not previously present.[2] Dengue, chikungunya and Zika spread across the Pacific and into the Americas by means of the airline networks.[3] Cases of "airport malaria", in which live malaria-carrying mosquitoes disembark and infect people near the airport, may increase with global warming.[4]

Definitions in the International Health Regulations[5] (IHR) of the World Health Organization are:

  • "Disinfection" means the procedure whereby health measures are taken to control or kill infectious agents on a human or animal body surface or in or on baggage, cargo, containers, conveyances, goods and postal parcels by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents.
  • “Disinsection” means the procedure whereby health measures are taken to control or kill the insect vectors of human diseases present in baggage, cargo, containers, conveyances, goods and postal parcels.

Disinsection is mandated by the IHR.[6] The WHO recommends d-phenothrin (2%) for space spraying and permethrin (2%) for residual disinsection.[7] Neither is harmful when used as recommended, according to WHO. Disinsection is one of two applications of the IHR likely to be encountered by travelers; yellow fever vaccination is the other.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Erratum: Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 108: 519. 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  2. ^ Gratz, NG; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W (2000). "Why aircraft disinsection?". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (8): 995–1004. PMC 2560818Freely accessible. PMID 10994283. 
  3. ^ Roth, A; Mercier, A; Lepers, C; Hoy, D; Duituturaga, S; Benyon, E; Guillaumot, L; Souares, Y (16 October 2014). "Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections - an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014.". Euro Surveillance. 19 (41): 20929. PMID 25345518. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.41.20929. 
  4. ^ "Global Warming Plus Jet Travel Fuels ‘Airport Malaria’". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  5. ^ "Strengthening health security by implementing the International Health Regulations (2005)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  6. ^ "Aircraft disinsection". International travel and health. World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  7. ^ "AIRCRAFT DISINFECTION INSECTICIDES" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  8. ^ Hardiman, M; Wilder-Smith, A. "The revised international health regulations and their relevance to travel medicine.". Journal of travel medicine. 14 (3): 141–4. PMID 17437468. doi:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2007.00117.x.