Al-Qa'qa' ibn 'Amr al-Tamimi

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Al-Qa'qa' ibn 'Amr al Tamimi
Allegiance Rashidun Caliphate
Service/branch Rashidun army
Rank General
Unit Mobile guard
Commands held
Ahl al-Qādisiyyah Field commander
Commander of Mobile guard

Al-Qa'qa' ibn 'Amr ibn Malik al Tamimi (Arabic: القعقاع بن عمرو بن مالك التميمي‎ al-Qaʿqāʿ ibn ʿAmr ibn Mālik al-Tamīmī) was a man of Banu Tamim. He and his tribe converted to Islam possibly during the time of Ahnaf ibn Qais. He is known as successful Military Commander who took part in two important victorious battles in early Muslim Conquest, the Battle of Yarmouk against the Byzantine Empire (commanded by Khalid ibn al-Walid) and the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah against the Sassanian Empire which was led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas. It was reported that in one time Caliph Abu Bakr praised him as an equal to eleven thousand men so in return the caliph predecessor, caliph Umar only sent him and a handful bodyguards as reinforcement to Al Qaddisiyah as the first wave as reinforcement.[1] making him one of the most Illustrious military figures in that era.

Life[edit]

Ridda wars[edit]

Qa'qa ibn Amr converted along with his tribe, in the Year of the delegations, 631. But, for a brief period, he and other Tamim joined the force of false prophetess Sajah bint al-Harith before she was subdued during Ridda wars later on he carried successful military career under Khalid bin Walid suppressing another false prophet Tulayha in the Battle of Buzakha.[2] after the Ridda wars has been ended he continued to follow Khalid's campaign to Syria and Iraq.

Battle of Chains[edit]

Qa'qa is taking part in the Battle of Chains and in one occasion when Qa'qa saw Khalid duelling the Sassanid champion, Hormuz he rushed to help his superior when the Sassanid sent aid to intercept the duel, killing all the Sassanid soldiers who intended to kill Khalid amid the duel in the process[3] During this battle its reported that Qa'qa said "We did trample Hormuz with fury restrained..."[4]

Battle of Yarmouk[edit]

In the famous battle of Yarmouk Under Khalid he served as his subordinate Officer in Mobile guard elite cavalry. subsequently taking part as 'Fire Brigade' role, plugging all weak points or reinforcing the routed line within the Muslim ranks in short span of time and taking opposing forces's heaviest blows in process to recover the lost grounds. this is similar to Panzer-Grenadier-Division Großdeutschland amazing feats Battle of the Dnieper and Second Battle of Târgu Frumos in World War II[5]

Battle of al-Qādisiyyah[edit]

The Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattāb sent Al-Qa'qa' ibn 'Amr to take part in the battle of Qadisiyya. On 17 November 636, his units reached the battlefield at noon. Before arriving, Qa’qa divided his troops into several smaller groups and instructed them to appear on the battlefield one after the other, giving the impression that large reinforcements were arriving. Qa'qa was busy raising morale and arranging his companions to the place from where he parted from them in previous day. The Persian army's elephants were a serious obstacle for the Muslims. To solve this problem, Qa’qa resorted to an ingenious device. The camels in his army were disguised to look like weird monsters. These "monsters" were moved to the Sassanid front and, upon seeing them, the Sassanid horses turned and fled. With the disorganization of the Sassanid cavalry, the Persian infantry at the left and center became exposed and vulnerable. Saad ordered an all-out attack by the Muslims. After the Persian army was routed Qa’qa ibn Amr went into pursuit and killed the Persian general Bahman, who commanded the Sassanid army at the Battle of the Bridge.

On 18 November 636 when the battle resumed he led the vanguard cavalry of three hundred accompanied by Qays bin Hazim who led the Hashim tribe kinsmen who came from Syria together with local Iraq tribal warriors. This time they are involved in melee combat against the elephant corps of Sassanid, busy of blinding and severing the Elephants trunks with spears and other melee weapons while the Muslim archers chopping down its riders. later on the situation was dire this day because despite they have already annihilated elephant corps but the Sassanids fought more ferociously, even Qa'qa's fellow kinsmen, Khalid bin Yamar al-Tamimi was fallen in the night, so Qa'qa was taking the initiative to reinvigorate the Muslims armies.

Muslims attack the Persian front, Qa'qa's men penetrated the right center of the Persian army and killed Rustum

At sunrise of 19 November 636, the fighting had ceased, but the battle was still inconclusive. Qa'qa, with the consent of Saad, was now acting as a field commander of the Muslim troops. He is reported to have addressed his men as follows:

"If we fight for an hour or so more, the enemy will be defeated. So, warriors of the Bani Tameem make one more attempt and victory will be yours."

The Muslims' left center led by Qa’qa surged forward and attacked the Sassanid right center, followed by the general attack of the Muslims' corps. The Sassanids were taken by surprise at the resumption of battle. The Sassanids left wing and left center were pushed back. Qa’qa again led a group of Mubarizuns against the Sassanids' left center and by noon, he and his men were able to pierce through the Sassanid center.[6]

Battle of Jalula[edit]

During the Battle of Jalula Mihran engaged his troops in an open battlefield, Hashim ibn Utbah decided to carry out his maneuver. He dispatched a strong cavalry regiment under one of his most illustrious cavalry commanders; Qaqa ibn Amr to capture the bridge over the entrenchments. The bridge was not heavily guarded as virtually all the Persian troops available were used to assault Muslim army's main rank. Qaqa maneuvered around Persian right flank quickly captured the bridge at their rear. The news of a strong Muslim cavalry detachment in their rear was a serious setback to Persian morale. Hashim launched a frontal attack with Muslim infantry while Qaqa stuck at Persian rear with his cavalry. Thus resulted the Sassanid Army trapped and routed in result.

After the campaign in Jalula was ended he stayed and held a military post for a while in Kufa.

First Muslim civil war[edit]

During the uprising of the followers of Abdullah ibn Saba' against the rule of Caliph Uthman. Qa'qa quickly suppress the revolt potential by brought Yazid bin Qays al-Arhabi, leader of Kufa Saba'ites to heel. Many times he went using his own reputation as the hero of Caliphate who respected and feared by peoples of Kufa to cooling down the heated political atmosphere before and after caliph Uthman was murdered. he even tried to mediate the faction of Ali and Aisha to ensuing peaceful negotiation although his attempt bear fruitless and the Battle of the Camel unavoided[7]

After the civil war was ended he was purged by Caliph Muawiyah together with other Ali supporter from Kufa and exiled to Jerusalem[8][9]

Death[edit]

Despite the exile he later went back to live Kufa, where he allegedly died later in retirement[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ÇáãæÓæÚÉ ÇáÔÇãáÉ - ÇáÅÕÇÈÉ Ýí ÊãííÒ ÇáÕÍÇÈÉ". Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Ibn al-Athir , Usd al-Ghaba fī ma'rifat al-Sahaba ("The lions of the forest in the knowledge of the Companions "), 7 vols., Muhammad Ibrahim al-Banna, Muhammad Ahmad 'Ashur, Mahmud al Wahhab Fā'id (edd.), Cairo , Kitab al-Sha'b, 1393/1973, IV, p. 409, n. 4309.
  3. ^ Sword of Allah: Chapter 19: The Battle of Chains Read more: http://www.grandestrategy.com/2007/12/sword-of-allah-chapter-19-battle-of.html#ixzz3P6lCrg5Z
  4. ^ Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, Dar Abi Hayyan, Cairo, 1st ed. 1416/1996, Vol. 6 P. 425.
  5. ^ "Grande Strategy". Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  6. ^ "The History of al-Tabari Vol. 12". Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  7. ^ "The Caliph and the Heretic". Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  8. ^ "Iraq After the Muslim Conquest". Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  9. ^ "A History of Palestine, 634-1099". Retrieved 22 April 2015.