|Republic of Iraq
and largest city
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Legislature||Council of Representatives|
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|3 October 1932|
|14 July 1958|
|15 October 2005|
|437,072 km2 (168,754 sq mi) (59th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
|82.7/km2 (214.2/sq mi) (125th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$612 billion (34th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|$240.006 billion (47th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2014)|| 0.654
medium · 121st
|Currency||Iraqi dinar (IQD)|
|Time zone||AST (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||IQ|
Iraq (//, i//, or //; Arabic: العراق al-‘Irāq; Kurdish: عێراق Eraq), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العـراق Jumhūrīyyat al-‘Irāq; Kurdish: كۆماريى عێراق Komari Eraq) is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.
Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws, and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian empires. It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, and Ottoman empires.
Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Technology
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk (Biblical Hebrew Erech) and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "deeply rooted, well-watered; fertile".
During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī ("Arabian Iraq") for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī ("Foreign Iraq"), for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran. The term historically included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq.
The term Sawad was also used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area.
The Arabic pronunciation is [ʕiˈrɑːq]. In English, it is either // (the only pronunciation listed in the Oxford English Dictionary and the first one in Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary) or // (listed first by MQD), the American Heritage Dictionary, and the Random House Dictionary. The pronunciation // is frequently heard in U.S. media.
Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is also the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from approximately 11,000 BC.
Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq (alongside Asia Minor and The Levant) was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period (PPNB) is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gypsum and burnt lime (Vaisselle blanche). Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations.
Further important sites of human advancement were Jarmo (circa 7100 BC), the Halaf culture and Ubaid period (between 6500 BC and 3800 BC), these periods show ever increasing levels of advancement in agriculture, tool making and architecture.
|This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (June 2014)|
The historical period in Iraq truly begins during the Uruk period (4000 BC to 3100 BC), with the founding of a number of Sumerian cities, and the use of Pictographs, Cylinder seals and mass-produced goods.
The "Cradle of Civilization" is thus a common term for the area comprising modern Iraq as it was home to the earliest known civilisation, the Sumerian civilisation, which arose in the fertile Tigris-Euphrates river valley of southern Iraq in the Chalcolithic (Ubaid period).
It was here, in the late 4th millennium BC, that the world's first writing system and recorded history itself were born. The Sumerians were also the first to harness the wheel and create City States, and whose writings record the first evidence of Mathematics, Astronomy, Astrology, Written Law, Medicine and Organised religion.
The Sumerians spoke a Language Isolate, in other words, a language utterly unrelated to any other, including the Semitic Languages, Indo-European Languages, Afroasiatic languages or any other isolates. The major city states of the early Sumerian period were; Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, Shuruppak, Uruk, Kish, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, Girsu, Umma, Hamazi, Adab, Mari, Isin, Kutha, Der and Akshak.
Cities such as Ashur, Arbela (modern Irbil) and Arrapkha (modern Kirkuk) were also extant in what was to be called Assyria from the 25th century BC; however, at this early stage, they were Sumerian ruled administrative centres.
In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash created what was perhaps the first empire in history, though this was short-lived. Later, Lugal-Zage-Si, the priest-king of Umma, overthrew the primacy of the Lagash dynasty in the area, then conquered Uruk, making it his capital, and claimed an empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. It was during this period that the Epic of Gilgamesh originates, which includes the tale of The Great Flood.
From approximately 3000 BC, a Semitic people had entered Iraq from the west and settled amongst the Sumerians. These people spoke an East Semitic language that would later come to be known as Akkadian. From the 29th century BC, Akkadian Semitic names began to appear on king lists and administrative documents of various city states.
During the 3rd millennium BCE, a cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. The influences between Sumerian and Akkadian are evident in all areas, including lexical borrowing on a massive scale—and syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This mutual influence has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian of the 3rd millennium BCE as a Sprachbund. From this period, the civilisation in Iraq came to be known as Sumero-Akkadian.
However, the Sumerians remained generally dominant until the rise of the Akkadian Empire (2335–2124 BC), based in the city of Akkad in central Iraq. Sargon of Akkad, originally a Rabshakeh to a Sumerian king, founded the empire, he conquered all of the city states of southern and central Iraq, and subjugated the kings of Assyria, thus uniting the Sumerians and Akkadians in one state. He then set about expanding his empire, conquering Gutium, Elam, Cissia and Turukku in Ancient Iran, the Hurrians, Luwians and Hattians of Anatolia, and the Amorites and Eblaites of Ancient Syria.
After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire in the late 22nd century BC, the Gutians occupied the south for a few decades, while Assyria reasserted its independence in the north. This was followed by a Sumerian renaissance in the form of the Neo-Sumerian Empire. The Sumerians under king Shulgi conquered almost all of Iraq except the northern reaches of Assyria, and asserted themselves over the Elamites, Gutians and Amorites.
An Elamite invasion in 2004 BC brought the Sumerian revival to an end. By the mid 21st century BC, the Akkadian speaking kingdom of Assyria had risen to dominance in northern Iraq. Assyria expanded territorially into the north eastern Levant, central Iraq, and eastern Anatolia, forming the Old Assyrian Empire (circa 2035–1750 BC) under kings such as Puzur-Ashur I, Sargon I, Ilushuma and Erishum I, the latter of whom produced the most detailed set of Written Laws yet written. The south broke up into a number of Akkadian speaking states, Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna being the major ones.
During the 20th century BC, the Canaanite speaking Northwest Semitic Amorites began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia. Eventually, these Amorites began to set up small petty kingdoms in the south, as well as usurping the thrones of extant city states such as Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna.
One of these small kingdoms founded in 1894 BC contained the then small administrative town of Babylon within its borders. It remained insignificant for over a century, overshadowed by older and more powerful states, such as Assyria, Elam, Isin, Ehnunna and Larsa.
In 1792 BC, an Amorite ruler named Hammurabi came to power in this state, and immediately set about building Babylon from a minor town into a major city, declaring himself its king. Hammurabi conquered the whole of southern and central Iraq, as well as Elam to the east and Mari to the west, then engaged in a protracted war with the Assyrian king Ishme-Dagan for domination of the region, creating the short-lived Babylonian Empire. He eventually prevailed over the successor of Ishme-Dagan and subjected Assyria and its Anatolian colonies.
It is from the period of Hammurabi that southern Iraq came to be known as Babylonia, while the north had already coalesced into Assyria hundreds of years before. However, his empire was short-lived, and rapidly collapsed after his death, with both Assyria and southern Iraq, in the form of the Sealand Dynasty, falling back into native Akkadian hands. The foreign Amorites clung on to power in a once more weak and small Babylonia until it was sacked by the Indo-European speaking Hittite Empire based in Anatolia in 1595 BC. After this, another foreign people, the Language Isolate speaking Kassites, originating in the Zagros Mountains of Ancient Iran, seized control of Babylonia, where they were to rule for almost 600 years, by far the longest dynasty ever to rule in Babylon.
Iraq was from this point divided into three polities: Assyria in the north, Kassite Babylonia in the south central region, and the Sealand Dynasty in the far south. The Sealand Dynasty was finally conquered by Kassite Babylonia circa 1380 BC.
The Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1020 BC) saw Assyria rise to be the most powerful nation in the known world. Beginning with the campaigns of Ashur-uballit I, Assyria destroyed the rival Hurrian-Mitanni Empire, annexed huge swathes of the Hittite Empire for itself, annexed northern Babylonia from the Kassites, forced the Egyptian Empire from the region, and defeated the Elamites, Phrygians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Cilicians, Gutians, Dilmunites and Arameans. At its height, the Middle Assyrian Empire stretched from The Caucasus to Dilmun (modern Bahrain), and from the Mediterranean coasts of Phoenicia to the Zagros Mountains of Iran. In 1235 BC, Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria took the throne of Babylon, thus becoming the very first native Mesopotamian to rule the state.
During the Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC), Babylonia was in a state of chaos, dominated for long periods by Assyria and Elam. The Kassites were driven from power by Assyria and Elam, allowing native south Mesopotamian kings to rule Babylonia for the first time, although often subject to Assyrian or Elamite rulers. However, these East Semitic Akkadian kings, were unable to prevent new waves of West Semitic migrants entering southern Iraq, and during the 11th century BC Arameans and Suteans entered Babylonia from The Levant, and these were followed in the late 10th to early 9th century BC by the migrant Chaldeans who were closely related to the earlier Arameans.
After a period of comparative decline in Assyria, it once more began to expand with the Neo Assyrian Empire (935–605 BC). This was to be the largest and most powerful empire the world had yet seen, and under rulers such as Adad-Nirari II, Ashurnasirpal, Shalmaneser III, Semiramis, Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, Iraq became the centre of an empire stretching from Persia, Parthia and Elam in the east, to Cyprus and Antioch in the west, and from The Caucasus in the north to Egypt, Nubia and Arabia in the south.
It was during this period that an Akkadian influenced form of Eastern Aramaic was introduced by the Assyrians as the lingua franca of their vast empire, and Mesopotamian Aramaic began to supplant Akkadian as the spoken language of the general populace of both Assyria and Babylonia. The descendant dialects of this tongue survive amongst the Assyrians of northern Iraq to this day.
In the late 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire tore itself apart with a series of brutal civil wars, weakening itself to such a degree that a coalition of its former subjects; the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Parthians, Scythians and Cimmerians, were able to attack Assyria, finally bringing its empire down by 605 BC.
The short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire (620–539 BC) succeeded that of Assyria. It failed to attain the size, power or longevity of its predecessor; however, it came to dominate The Levant, Canaan, Arabia, Israel and Judah, and to defeat Egypt. Initially, Babylon was ruled by yet another foreign dynasty, that of the Chaldeans, who had migrated to the region in the late 10th or early 9th century BC. Its greatest king, Nebuchadnezzar II, rivalled another non native ruler, the ethnically unrelated Amorite king Hammurabi, as the greatest king of Babylon. However, by 556 BC, the Chaldeans had been deposed from power by the Assyrian born Nabonidus and his son and regent Belshazzar.
In the 6th century BC, Cyrus the Great of neighbouring Persia defeated the Neo-Babylonian Empire at the Battle of Opis and Iraq was subsumed into the Achaemenid Empire for nearly two centuries. The Achaemenids made Babylon their main capital. The Chaldeans and Chaldea disappeared at around this time, though both Assyria and Babylonia endured and thrived under Achaemenid rule (see Achaemenid Assyria). Little changed under the Persians, having spent three centuries under Assyrian rule, their kings saw themselves as successors to Ashurbanipal, and they retained Assyrian Imperial Aramaic as the language of empire, together with the Assyrian imperial infrastructure, and an Assyrian style of art and architecture.
In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great conquered the region, putting it under Hellenistic Seleucid rule for over two centuries. The Seleucids introduced the Indo-Anatolian and Greek term Syria to the region. This name had for many centuries been the Indo-European word for Assyria and specifically and only meant Assyria; however, the Seleucids also applied it to The Levant (Aramea, causing both the Assyria and the Assyrians of Iraq and the Arameans and The Levant to be called Syria and Syrians/Syriacs in the Greco-Roman world.
The Parthians (247 BC – 224 AD) from Persia conquered the region during the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia (r. 171–138 BC). From Syria, the Romans invaded western parts of the region several times, briefly founding Assyria Provincia in Assyria. Christianity began to take hold in Iraq (particularly in Assyria) between the 1st and 3rd centuries, and Assyria became a centre of Syriac Christianity, the Church of the East and Syriac literature. A number of indigenous independent Neo-Assyrian states evolved in the north during the Parthian era, such as Adiabene, Assur, Osroene and Hatra.
A number of Assyrians from Mesopotamia were conscripted into or joined the Roman Army, and the Aramaic language of Assyria and Mesopotamia has been found as far afield as Hadrians Wall in northern Ancient Britain, with inscriptions written by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers of the Roman Empire.
The Sassanids of Persia under Ardashir I destroyed the Parthian Empire and conquered the region in 224 AD. During the 240s and 250's AD, the Sassanids gradually conquered the small Neo Assyrian states, culminating with Assur in 256 AD. The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries (see also; Asōristān), and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire, with both empires weakening each other greatly, paving the way for the Arab-Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.
The Arab Islamic conquest in the mid-7th century AD established Islam in Iraq and saw a large influx of Arabs. Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, moved his capital to Kufa when he became the fourth caliph. The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century. (However, eventually there was a separate, independent Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia.)
The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries. Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages, peaking at a population of more than a million, and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age. The Mongols destroyed the city during the siege of Baghdad in the 13th century.
In 1257, Hulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire's forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad. When they arrived at the Islamic capital, Hulagu Khan demanded its surrender, but the last Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, he besieged Baghdad, sacked the city and massacred many of the inhabitants. Estimates of the number of dead range from 200,000 to a million.
The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's House of Wisdom, which contained countless precious and historical documents. The city has never regained its previous pre-eminence as a major centre of culture and influence. Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for millennia. Other historians point to soil salination as the culprit in the decline in agriculture.
In 1401, a warlord of Mongol descent, Tamerlane (Timur Lenk), invaded Iraq. After the capture of Baghdad, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur). Timur also conducted massacres of the indigenous Assyrian Christian population, hitherto still the majority population in northern Mesopotamia, and it was during this time that the ancient Assyrian city of Assur was finally abandoned.
During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled the area now known as Iraq. In 1466, the White Sheep Turkmen defeated the Black Sheep and took control. From the earliest 16th century, in 1508, as with all territories of the former White Sheep Turkmen, Iraq fell into the hands of the Iranian Safavids. Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian rivalary between the Safavids and the neighbouring Ottoman Turks, Iraq would be contested between the two for more than a hundred years during the frequent Ottoman-Persian Wars.
With the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639, most of the territory of present-day Iraq eventually came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the eyalet of Baghdad as a result of wars with the neighbouring rival, Safavid Iran. Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule (1533–1918), the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances.
By the 17th century, the frequent conflicts with the Safavids had sapped the strength of the Ottoman Empire and had weakened its control over its provinces. The nomadic population swelled with the influx of bedouins from Najd, in the Arabian Peninsula. Bedouin raids on settled areas became impossible to curb.
During the years 1747–1831, Iraq was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty of Georgian origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Porte, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a programme of modernisation of economy and military. In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq. The population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in 800 AD, was only 5 million at the start of the 20th century.
During World War I, the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers. In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and initially suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut (1915–1916). However, subsequent to this the British began to gain the upper hand, and were further aided by the support of local Arabs and Assyrians. In 1916, the British and French made a plan for the post-war division of Western Asia under the Sykes-Picot Agreement. British forces regrouped and captured Baghdad in 1917, and defeated the Ottomans. An armistice was signed in 1918.
During World War I, the Ottomans were defeated and driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45,000 prisoners of war. By the end of 1918, the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, of which 112,000 were combat troops.
British administration and independent Kingdom
On 11 November 1920, Iraq became a League of Nations mandate under British control with the name "State of Iraq". The British established the Hashemite king, Faisal I of Iraq, who had been forced out of Syria by the French, as their client ruler. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices.[specify][page needed]
Faced with spiraling costs and influenced by the public protestations of the war hero T. E. Lawrence in The Times, Britain replaced Arnold Wilson in October 1920 with a new Civil Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox. Cox managed to quell a rebellion, yet was also responsible for implementing the fateful policy of close co-operation with Iraq's Sunni minority. The institution of slavery was abolished in the 1920s.
Britain granted independence to the Kingdom of Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases, local militia in the form of Assyrian Levies, and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939. Ghazi was followed by his underage son, Faisal II. 'Abd al-Ilah served as Regent during Faisal's minority.
On 1 April 1941, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and members of the Golden Square staged a coup d'état and overthrew the government of 'Abd al-Ilah. During the subsequent Anglo-Iraqi War, the United Kingdom (which still maintained air bases in Iraq) invaded Iraq for fear that the Rashid Ali government might cut oil supplies to Western nations because of his links to the Axis powers. The war started on 2 May, and the British, together with loyal Assyrian Levies, defeated the forces of Al-Gaylani, forcing an armistice on 31 May.
A military occupation followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite monarchy. The occupation ended on 26 October 1947, although Britain was to retain military bases in Iraq until 1954, after which the Assyrian militias were disbanded. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Said, the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from 1930 to 1932, and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.
Republic and Ba'athist Iraq
In 1958, a coup d'etat known as the 14 July Revolution led by the Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim. This revolt was strongly anti-imperial and anti-monarchical in nature and had strong socialist elements. Numerous people were killed in the coup, including King Faysal II, Prince Abd al-Ilah, and Nuri al-Sa'id. Qasim controlled Iraq through military rule and in 1958 he began a process of forcibly reducing the surplus amounts of land owned by a few citizens and having the state redistribute the land. He was overthrown by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif in a February 1963 coup. After his death in 1966, he was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, who was overthrown by the Ba'ath Party in 1968. Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became the first Ba'ath President of Iraq but then the movement gradually came under the control of General Saddam Hussein, who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July 1979.
In 1979, the Iranian Revolution took place. Following months of cross-border raids between the two countries, Saddam declared war on Iran in September 1980, initiating the Iran–Iraq War (or First Persian Gulf War). Taking advantage of the post-revolution chaos in Iran, Iraq captured some territories in southwest of Iran, but Iran recaptured all of the lost territories within two years, and for the next six years Iran was on the offensive.[page needed] The war, which ended in stalemate in 1988, had cost the lives of between half a million and 1.5 million people. In 1981, Israeli aircraft bombed an Iraqi nuclear materials testing reactor at Osirak and was widely criticised at the United Nations. During the 8-year war with Iran, Saddam Hussein extensively used chemical weapons against Iranians, In the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War, the Ba'athist Iraqi regime led the Al-Anfal Campaign, a genocidal campaign that targeted Iraqi Kurds, and led to the killing of 50,000–100,000 civilians. Chemical weapons were also used against Iraqi Shia civilians during the 1991 uprisings in Iraq.
In August 1990, Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait. This subsequently led to military intervention by United States-led forces in the First Gulf War. The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military targets and then launched a 100-hour-long ground assault against Iraqi forces in Southern Iraq and those occupying Kuwait.
Iraq's armed forces were devastated during the war and shortly after it ended in 1991, Shia and Kurdish Iraqis led several uprisings against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons. It is estimated that as many as 100,000 people, including many civilians were killed. During the uprisings the US, UK, France and Turkey, claiming authority under UNSCR 688, established the Iraqi no-fly zones to protect Kurdish and Shiite populations from attacks by the Hussein regime's fixed-wing aircraft (but not helicopters).
Iraq was ordered to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and the UN attempted to compel Saddam Hussein's government to disarm and agree to a ceasefire by imposing additional sanctions on the country in addition to the initial sanctions imposed following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions which remained in place until 2003. Studies dispute the effects of the sanctions on Iraqi civilians.
During the late 1990s, the UN considered relaxing the Iraq sanctions because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis and attacks on US aircraft patrolling the no-fly zones led to US bombing of Iraq in December 1998.
Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the George W. Bush administration began planning the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's government and in October 2002, the US Congress passed the Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq. In November 2002, the UN Security Council passed UNSCR 1441 and in March 2003 the US and its allies invaded Iraq.
On 20 March 2003, a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq, under the pretext that Iraq had failed to abandon its weapons of mass destruction program in violation of U.N. Resolution 687. This claim was based on documents provided by the CIA and the British government and were later found to be unreliable.
Following the invasion, the United States established the Coalition Provisional Authority to govern Iraq. In May 2003 L. Paul Bremer, the chief executive of the CPA, issued orders to exclude Baath Party members from the new Iraqi government (CPA Order 1) and to disband the Iraqi Army (CPA Order 2). The decision dissolved the largely Sunni Iraqi Army and excluded many of the country's former government officials from participating in the country's governance, including 40,000 school teachers who had joined the Baath Party simply to keep their jobs, helping to bring about a chaotic post-invasion environment.
An insurgency against the US-led coalition-rule of Iraq began in summer 2003 within elements of the former Iraqi secret police and army, who formed guerilla units. In fall 2003, self-entitled 'jihadist' groups began targeting coalition forces. Various Sunni militias were created in 2003, for example Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The insurgency included intense inter-ethnic violence between Sunnis and Shias. The Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal came to light, late 2003 in reports by Amnesty International and Associated Press.
The Mahdi Army—a Shia militia created in the summer of 2003 by Muqtada al-Sadr—began to fight Coalition forces in April 2004. 2004 saw Sunni and Shia militants fighting against each other and against the new Iraqi Interim Government installed in June 2004, and against Coalition forces, as well as the First Battle of Fallujah in April and Second Battle of Fallujah in November. The Sunni militia Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad became Al-Qaeda in Iraq in October 2004 and targeted Coalition forces as well as civilians, mainly Shia Muslims, further exacerbating ethnic tensions.
In January 2005, the first elections since the invasion took place and in October a new Constitution was approved, which was followed by parliamentary elections in December. However, insurgent attacks were common and increased to 34,131 in 2005 from 26,496 in 2004.
During 2006, fighting continued and reached its highest levels of violence, more war crimes scandals were made public, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was killed by US forces and Iraq's former dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death for crimes against humanity and hanged. In late 2006, the US government's Iraq Study Group recommended that the US begin focusing on training Iraqi military personnel and in January 2007 US President George W. Bush announced a "Surge" in the number of US troops deployed to the country.
In May 2007, Iraq's Parliament called on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal and US coalition partners such as the UK and Denmark began withdrawing their forces from the country. The war in Iraq has resulted in between 151,000 and 1.2 million Iraqis being killed.
In 2008, fighting continued and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against militants. The Iraqi government signed the US–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement, which required US forces to withdraw from Iraqi cities by 30 June 2009 and to withdraw completely from Iraq by 31 December 2011.
US troops handed over security duties to Iraqi forces in June 2009, though they continued to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout. On the morning of 18 December 2011, the final contingent of US troops to be withdrawn ceremonially exited over the border to Kuwait. Crime and violence initially spiked in the months following the US withdrawal from cities in mid-2009 but despite the initial increase in violence, in November 2009, Iraqi Interior Ministry officials reported that the civilian death toll in Iraq fell to its lowest level since the 2003 invasion.
Following the withdrawal of US troops in 2011, the insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability. In February 2011, the Arab Spring protests spread to Iraq; but the initial protests did not topple the government. The Iraqi National Movement, reportedly representing the majority of Iraqi Sunnis, boycotted Parliament for several weeks in late 2011 and early 2012, claiming that the Shiite-dominated government was striving to sideline Sunnis.
In 2012 and 2013 levels of violence increased and armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanised by the Syrian Civil War. Both Sunnis and Shias crossed the border to fight in Syria. In December 2012, Sunni Arabs protested against the government, whom they claimed marginalised them.
During 2013, Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the Iraq's Shia population in an attempt to undermine confidence in the Nouri al-Maliki-led government. In 2014, Sunni insurgents belonging to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) terrorist group seized control of large swathes of land including several major Iraqi cities, like Tikrit, Fallujah and Mosul creating hundreds of thousands of internally displaced persons amid reports of atrocities by ISIL fighters.
On 11 August, Iraq's highest court ruled that PM Maliki's bloc is biggest in parliament, meaning Maliki could stay Prime Minister. By 13 August, however, the Iraqi president had tasked Haider al-Abadi with forming a new government, and the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and some Iraqi politicians expressed their wish for a new leadership in Iraq, for example from Haider al-Abadi. On 14 August, Maliki stepped down as PM to support Mr al-Abadi and to "safeguard the high interests of the country". The US government welcomed this as "another major step forward" in uniting Iraq. On 9 September 2014, Haider al-Abadi had formed a new government and became the new prime minister. Intermittent conflict between Sunni, Shiite and Kurdish factions has led to increasing debate about the splitting of Iraq into three autonomous regions, including Kurdistan in the northeast, a Sunnistan in the west and a Shiastan in the southeast.
|This section does not cite any sources. (June 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Iraq lies between latitudes 29° and 38° N, and longitudes 39° and 49° E (a small area lies west of 39°). Spanning 437,072 km2 (168,754 sq mi), it is the 58th-largest country in the world. It is comparable in size to the US state of California, and somewhat larger than Paraguay.
Iraq mainly consists of desert, but near the two major rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) are fertile alluvial plains, as the rivers carry about 60,000,000 m3 (78,477,037 cu yd) of silt annually to the delta. The north of the country is mostly composed of mountains; the highest point being at 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point, unnamed on the map opposite, but known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). Iraq has a small coastline measuring 58 km (36 mi) along the Persian Gulf. Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab (known as arvandrūd: اروندرود among Iranians) there used to be marshlands, but many were drained in the 1990s.
Most of Iraq has a hot arid climate with subtropical influence. Summer temperatures average above 40 °C (104 °F) for most of the country and frequently exceed 48 °C (118.4 °F). Winter temperatures infrequently exceed 21 °C (69.8 °F) with maxima roughly 15 to 19 °C (59.0 to 66.2 °F) and night-time lows 2 to 5 °C (35.6 to 41.0 °F). Typically, precipitation is low; most places receive less than 250 mm (9.8 in) annually, with maximum rainfall occurring during the winter months. Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare, except in the far north of the country. The northern mountainous regions have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding.
Government and politics
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as a democratic, federal parliamentary Islamic republic. The federal government is composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions. Aside from the federal government, there are regions (made of one or more governorates), governorates, and districts within Iraq with jurisdiction over various matters as defined by law.
The National Alliance is the main Shia parliamentary bloc, and was established as a result of a merger of Prime Minister Nouri Maliki's State of Law Coalition and the Iraqi National Alliance. The Iraqi National Movement is led by Iyad Allawi, a secular Shia widely supported by Sunnis. The party has a more consistent anti-sectarian perspective than most of its rivals. The Kurdistan List is dominated by two parties, the Kurdistan Democratic Party led by Masood Barzani and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan headed by Jalal Talabani. Both parties are secular and enjoy close ties with the West.
In 2010, according to the Failed States Index, Iraq was the world's seventh most politically unstable country. The concentration of power in the hands of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and growing pressure on the opposition led to growing concern about the future of political rights in Iraq. Nevertheless, progress was made and the country had risen to 11th place by 2013. In August 2014, al-Maliki's reign came to an end. He announced on 14 August 2014 that he would stand aside so that Haider Al-Abadi, who had been nominated just days earlier by newly installed President Fuad Masum, could take over. Until that point, al-Maliki had clung to power even asking the federal court to veto the president's nomination describing it as a violation of the constitution.
Transparency International ranks Iraq's government as the eighth-most-corrupt government in the world. Government payroll have increased from 1 million employees under Saddam Hussein to around 7 million employees in 2016. In combination with decreased oil prices, the government budget deficit is near 25% of GDP as of 2016.
In October 2005, the new Constitution of Iraq was approved in a referendum with a 78% overall majority, although the percentage of support varying widely between the country's territories. The new constitution was backed by the Shia and Kurdish communities, but was rejected by Arab Sunnis. Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on 15 December 2005. All three major ethnic groups in Iraq voted along ethnic lines, as did Assyrian and Turcoman minorities.
Law no. 188 of the year 1959 (Personal Status Law) made polygamy extremely difficult, granted child custody to the mother in case of divorce, prohibited repudiation and marriage under the age of 16. Article 1 of Civil Code also identifies Islamic law as a formal source of law. Iraq had no Sharia courts but civil courts used Sharia for issues of personal status including marriage and divorce. In 1995 Iraq introduced Sharia punishment for certain types of criminal offences. The code is based on French civil law as well as Sunni and Jafari (Shi’ite) interpretations of Sharia.
In 2004, the CPA chief executive L. Paul Bremer said he would veto any constitutional draft stating that sharia is the principal basis of law. The declaration enraged many local Shia clerics, and by 2005 the United States had relented, allowing a role for sharia in the constitution to help end a stalemate on the draft constitution.
The Iraqi Penal Code is the statutory law of Iraq.
Iraqi security forces are composed of forces serving under the Ministry of Interior (which controls the Police and Popular Mobilization Forces) and the Ministry of Defense, as well as the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Bureau, reporting directly to the Prime Minister of Iraq, which oversees the Iraqi Special Operations Forces. Ministry of Defense forces include the Iraqi Army, the Iraqi Air Force and the Iraqi Navy. The Peshmerga are a separate armed force loyal to the Kurdistan Regional Government. The regional government and the central government disagree as to whether they are under Baghdad's authority and to what extent.
The Iraqi Army is an objective counter-insurgency force that as of November 2009 includes 14 divisions, each division consisting of 4 brigades. It is described as the most important element of the counter-insurgency fight. Light infantry brigades are equipped with small arms, machine guns, RPGs, body armour and light armoured vehicles. Mechanized infantry brigades are equipped with T-54/55 main battle tanks and BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles. As of mid-2008, logistical problems included a maintenance crisis and ongoing supply problems.
The Iraqi Air Force is designed to support ground forces with surveillance, reconnaissance and troop lift. Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C-130 transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies. It currently has 3,000 personnel. It is planned to increase to 18,000 personnel, with 550 aircraft by 2018.
The Iraqi Navy is a small force with 1,500 sailors and officers, including 800 Marines, designed to protect shoreline and inland waterways from insurgent infiltration. The navy is also responsible for the security of offshore oil platforms. The navy will have coastal patrol squadrons, assault boat squadrons and a marine battalion. The force will consist of 2,000 to 2,500 sailors by year 2010.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2012)|
On 17 November 2008, the US and Iraq agreed to a Status of Forces Agreement, as part of the broader Strategic Framework Agreement. This agreement states "the Government of Iraq requests" US forces to temporarily remain in Iraq to "maintain security and stability" and that Iraq has jurisdiction over military contractors, and US personnel when not on US bases or on–duty.
On 12 February 2009, Iraq officially became the 186th State Party to the Chemical Weapons Convention. Under the provisions of this treaty, Iraq is considered a party with declared stockpiles of chemical weapons. Because of their late accession, Iraq is the only State Party exempt from the existing timeline for destruction of their chemical weapons. Specific criteria is in development to address the unique nature of Iraqi accession.
Iran–Iraq relations have flourished since 2005 by the exchange of high level visits: Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki made frequent visits to Iran, along with Jalal Talabani visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral co-operation in all fields. A conflict occurred in December 2009, when Iraq accused Iran of seizing an oil well on the border.
Relationships with Turkey are tense, largely because of the Kurdistan Regional Government, as clashes between Turkey and the PKK continue. In October 2011, the Turkish parliament renewed a law that gives Turkish forces the ability to pursue rebels over the border in Iraq."
Relations between Iraq and its Kurdish population have been sour in recent history, especially with Saddam Hussein's genocidal campaign against them in the 1980s. After uprisings during the early 90s, many Kurds fled their homeland and no-fly zones were established in northern Iraq to prevent more conflicts. Despite historically poor relations, some progress has been made, and Iraq elected its first Kurdish president, Jalal Talabani, in 2005. Furthermore, Kurdish is now an official language of Iraq alongside Arabic according to Article 4 of the constitution.
LGBT rights in Iraq remain limited. Although decriminalised, homosexuality remains stigmatised in Iraqi society. Targeting people because of their gender identity or sexual orientation is not uncommon and is usually carried out in the name of family honour. People who dress in emo style are mistakenly associated with homosexuality and may suffer the same fate. A BBC article published in 2009, which includes interviews of homosexual and transgender Iraqis, suggests that LGBT people were less subject to violence under Hussein's regime.
Iraq is composed of nineteen governorates (or provinces) (Arabic: muhafadhat (singular muhafadhah); Kurdish: پارێزگا Pârizgah). The governorates are subdivided into districts (or qadhas), which are further divided into sub-districts (or nawāḥī). Iraqi Kurdistan (Erbil, Dohuk, Sulaymaniyah and Halabja) is the only legally defined region within Iraq, with its own government and quasi-official army Peshmerga.
Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. The lack of development in other sectors has resulted in 18%–30% unemployed and a depressed per capita GDP of $4,000. Public sector employment accounted for nearly 60% of full-time employment in 2011. The oil export industry, which dominates the Iraqi economy, generates very little employment. Currently only a modest percentage of women (the highest estimate for 2011 was 22%) participate in the labour force.
Prior to US occupation, Iraq's centrally planned economy prohibited foreign ownership of Iraqi businesses, ran most large industries as state-owned enterprises, and imposed large tariffs to keep out foreign goods. After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, the Coalition Provisional Authority quickly began issuing many binding orders privatising Iraq's economy and opening it up to foreign investment.
On November 20, 2004, the Paris Club of creditor nations agreed to write off 80% ($33 billion) of Iraq's $42 billion debt to Club members. Iraq's total external debt was around $120 billion at the time of the 2003 invasion, and had grown another $5 billion by 2004. The debt relief will be implemented in three stages: two of 30% each and one of 20%.
The official currency in Iraq is the Iraqi dinar. The Coalition Provisional Authority issued new dinar coins and notes, with the notes printed by De La Rue using modern anti-forgery techniques. Jim Cramer's October 20, 2009 endorsement of the Iraqi Dinar on CNBC has further piqued interest in the investment.
Five years after the invasion, an estimated 2.4 million people were internally displaced (with a further two million refugees outside Iraq), four million Iraqis were considered food-insecure (a quarter of children were chronically malnourished) and only a third of Iraqi children had access to safe drinking water.
According to the Overseas Development Institute, international NGOs face challenges in carrying out their mission, leaving their assistance "piecemeal and largely conducted undercover, hindered by insecurity, a lack of coordinated funding, limited operational capacity and patchy information". International NGOs have been targeted and during the first 5 years, 94 aid workers were killed, 248 injured, 24 arrested or detained and 89 kidnapped or abducted.
Oil and energy
With its 143.1 billion barrels (2.275×1010 m3) of proved oil reserves, Iraq ranks second in the world behind Saudi Arabia in the amount of oil reserves. Oil production levels reached 3.4 million barrels per day by December 2012. Iraq intends to increase its production to 5 million barrels per day by 2014. Only about 2,000 oil wells have been drilled in Iraq, compared with about 1 million wells in Texas alone. Iraq was one of the founding members of OPEC.
As of 2010[update], despite improved security and billions of dollars in oil revenue, Iraq still generates about half the electricity that customers demand, leading to protests during the hot summer months.
According to a US Study from May 2007, between 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d) and 300,000 barrels per day (48,000 m3/d) of Iraq's declared oil production over the past four years could have been siphoned off through corruption or smuggling. In 2008, Al Jazeera reported $13 billion of Iraqi oil revenues in US care was improperly accounted for, of which $2.6 billion is totally unaccounted for. Some reports that the government has reduced corruption in public procurement of oil; however, reliable reports of bribery and kickbacks to government officials continue to persist.
In June 2008, the Iraqi Oil Ministry announced plans to go ahead with small one- or two-year no-bid contracts to Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total and BP—once partners in the Iraq Petroleum Company—along with Chevron and smaller firms to service Iraq's largest fields. These plans were cancelled in September because negotiations had stalled for so long that the work could not be completed within the time frame, according to Iraqi oil minister Hussain al-Shahristani. Several United States senators had also criticised the deal, arguing it was hindering efforts to pass the hydrocarbon law.
On 30 June and 11 December 2009, the Iraqi ministry of oil awarded service contracts to international oil companies for some of Iraq's many oil fields. Oil fields contracted include the "super-giant" Majnoon Field, Halfaya Field, West Qurna Field and Rumaila Field. BP and China National Petroleum Corporation won a deal to develop Rumaila, the largest Iraqi oil field.
On 14 March 2014, the International Energy Agency said Iraq's oil output jumped by half a million barrels a day in February to average 3.6 million barrels a day. The country hadn't pumped that much oil since 1979, when Saddam Hussein rose to power. However, on 14 July 2014, as sectarian strife had taken hold, Kurdistan Regional Government forces seized control of the Bai Hassan and Kirkuk oilfields in the north of the country, taking them from Iraq's control. Baghdad condemned the seizure and threatened "dire consequences" if the fields were not returned.
Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in Iraq is characterized by poor water and service quality. Three decades of war, combined with limited environmental awareness, have destroyed Iraq's water resources management system. Access to potable water differs significantly among governorates and between urban and rural areas. 91% of the entire population has access to potable water. But in rural areas, only 77% of the population has access to improved drinking water sources compared to 98% in urban areas. Also, large amounts of water are wasted during production.
Although many infrastructure projects are underway, Iraq remains in deep housing crisis, with the war-ravaged country likely to complete only 5 percent of the 2.5 million homes it needs to build by 2016 to keep up with demand, the Minister for Construction and Housing said in September 2013.
- In 2009, the IBBC was established (Iraq Britain Business Council). The Council was established by Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne.
- In August 2009, two American firms reached a deal with the Iraqi Government to build Basra Sports City, a new sports complex. Basra Sports City will be the venue for the 2014 Gulf Cup of Nations.
- In October 2012, the Emirati property firm, Emaar Properties reached a deal with the Iraqi Ministry of Construction and Housing to build and develop housing and commercial projects in Iraq.
- In January 2013, the Emirati property firm, Nakheel Properties signed a deal to build Al Nakheel City, a future town in Basra, Iraq.
|Historical populations in millions|
An April 2009 estimate of the total Iraqi population is 31,234,000. Iraq's population was estimated to be 2 million in 1878. Iraq's population has reached 35 million amid a post-war population boom.
Arabs form 75%–80% of the population. 15% of Iraq's population are Kurds. Assyrians, Iraqi Turkmen/Turkoman and other much smaller minorities, such as Mandeans, Armenians, Circassians, Iranians, Shabakis, Yazidis and Kawliya, make up the remainder 5%–10% of the population. Around 20,000 Marsh Arabs live in southern Iraq.
Iraq has a community of 2,500 Chechens. In southern Iraq, there is a community of Iraqis of African descent, a legacy of the slavery practised in the Islamic Caliphate beginning before the Zanj Rebellion of the 9th century, and Basra's role as a key port. It is the most populous country in the Arabian Plate.
Arabic is the majority language; Kurdish is spoken by approximately 10–15% of the population; and Turkmen/Turkoman, the Neo-Aramaic language of the Assyrians and others, by 5%. Other smaller minority languages include Mandaic, Shabaki, Armenian, Circassian and Persian. Arabic, Kurdish, Persian, and Turkmen/Turkoman are written with versions of the Arabic script, the Neo-Aramaic languages in the Syriac script and Armenian is written in the Armenian script.
Prior to the invasion in 2003, Arabic was the sole official language. Since the new Constitution of Iraq approved in June 2004, both Arabic and Kurdish are official languages, while Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Turkmen/Turkoman language (referred to as respectively "Syriac" and "Turkmen" in the constitution) are recognised regional languages. In addition, any region or province may declare other languages official if a majority of the population approves in a general referendum.
According to the Iraqi constitution: "The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Assyrian, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions".
Largest cities or towns in Iraq
Largest cities in Iraq (geonames.org)
|10||Al Nasiriya||Dhi Qar||700,373|
Iraq is a Muslim-majority country; Islam accounts for an estimated 95% of the population, while non-Muslims (mainly Assyrian Christians) account for just 5%. It has a mixed Shia and Sunni population. The CIA Factbook estimate that around 65% of Muslims in Iraq are Shia, and around 35% are Sunni. A 2011 Pew Research Center estimates that 51% of Muslims in Iraq are Shia, 42% are Sunni, while 5% identify themselves as "Just a Muslim".
The Sunni population complains of facing discrimination in almost all aspects of life by the government. However, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki denied it. Christians have lived in the area for about 2,000 years, and many descend from the pre-Arab ancient Mesopotamians-Assyrians. They numbered over 1.4 million in 1987 or 8% of the estimated population of 16.3 million and 550,000 in 1947 or 12% of the population.
Indigenous Neo Aramaic speaking Assyrians, most of whom are adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Syriac Orthodox Church account for most of the Christian population. Estimates for the numbers of Christians suggest a decline from 8–12% in the mid-20th century to 5% in 2008. More than half of Iraqi Christians have fled to neighbouring countries since the start of the war, and many have not returned, although a number are migrating back to the traditional Assyrian homeland in the Kurdish Autonomous region.
There are also small ethno-religious minority populations of Mandaeans, Shabaks, Yarsan and Yezidis. The Iraqi Jewish community, numbering around 150,000 in 1941, has almost entirely left the country.
Diaspora and refugees
The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis have fled the country after the multinational invasion of Iraq in 2003, mostly to Syria and Jordan. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre estimates an additional 1.9 million are currently displaced within the country.
In 2007, the U.N. said that about 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled and that most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return. Refugees are mired in poverty as they are generally barred from working in their host countries. In recent years the diaspora seems to be returning with the increased security; the Iraqi government claimed that 46,000 refugees have returned to their homes in October 2007 alone.
As of 2011[update], nearly 3 million Iraqis have been displaced, with 1.3 million within Iraq and 1.6 million in neighbouring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria. More than half of Iraqi Christians have fled the country since the 2003 US-led invasion. According to official United States Citizenship and Immigration Services statistics, 58,811 Iraqis have been granted refugee-status citizenship as of May 25, 2011.
To escape the civil war, over 160,000 Syrian refugees of varying ethnicities have fled to Iraq since 2012. Increasing violence during the Syrian civil war led to an increasing number of Iraqis returning to their native country.
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 6.84% of the country's GDP. In 2008, there were 6.96 physicians and 13.92 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. The life expectancy at birth was 68.49 years in 2010, or 65.13 years for males and 72.01 years for females. This is down from a peak life expectancy of 71.31 years in 1996.
Iraq had developed a centralised free health care system in the 1970s using a hospital based, capital-intensive model of curative care. The country depended on large-scale imports of medicines, medical equipment and even nurses, paid for with oil export income, according to a "Watching Brief" report issued jointly by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in July 2003. Unlike other poorer countries, which focused on mass health care using primary care practitioners, Iraq developed a Westernized system of sophisticated hospitals with advanced medical procedures, provided by specialist physicians. The UNICEF/WHO report noted that prior to 1990, 97% of the urban dwellers and 71% of the rural population had access to free primary health care; just 2% of hospital beds were privately managed.
The CIA World Factbook estimates that, in 2000, the adult literacy rate was 84% for males and 64% for females, with UN figures suggesting a small fall in literacy of Iraqis aged 15–24 between 2000 and 2008, from 84.8% to 82.4%. The Coalition Provisional Authority undertook a complete reform of Iraq's education system: Baathist ideology was removed from curricula and there were substantial increases in teacher salaries and training programs, which the Hussein regime neglected in the 1990s. In 2003, an estimated 80% of Iraq's 15,000 school buildings needed rehabilitation and lacked basic sanitary facilities, and most schools lacked libraries and laboratories.
Education is mandatory only through to the sixth grade, after which a national examination determines the possibility of continuing into the upper grades. Although a vocational track is available to those who do not pass the exam, few students elect that option because of its poor quality. Boys and girls generally attend separate schools beginning with seventh grade.
In 2005, obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years. Few private schools exist. Prior to the invasion of 2003, some 240,000 persons were enrolled in institutions of higher education.
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Dohuk (1717th worldwide), the University of Baghdad (3160th) and Babylon University (3946th).
Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam heritage which has been passed down orally by the masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present. The maqam al-Iraqi is considered to be the most noble and perfect form of maqam. Al-maqam al-Iraqi is the collection of sung poems written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect (Zuhayri). This form of art is recognised by UNESCO as "an intangible heritage of humanity".
Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish. In 1936, Iraq Radio was established with an ensemble made up entirely of Jews, with the exception of the percussion player. At the nightclubs of Baghdad, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney and cello were used on the radio.
The most famous singer of the 1930s–1940s was perhaps the Jew Salima Pasha (later Salima Murad). The respect and adoration for Pasha were unusual at the time since public performance by women was considered shameful, and most female singers were recruited from brothels.
The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon, an oud player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti. Daoud and his brother Saleh formed the official ensemble for the Iraqi radio station and were responsible for introducing the cello and ney into the traditional ensemble.
Art and architecture
Important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra – rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq but have since returned to normal. The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the 2003 invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it. The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 cinemas were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.
Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include the Academy of Music, Institute of Fine Arts and the Music and Ballet school Baghdad. Baghdad also features a number of museums including the National Museum of Iraq – which houses the world's largest and finest collection of artefacts and relics of Ancient Iraqi civilisations; some of which were stolen during the Occupation of Iraq.
The capital, Ninus or Nineveh, was taken by the Medes under Cyaxares, and some 200 years after Xenophon passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth. It remained buried until 1845, when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. The principal remains are those of Khorsabad, 16 km (10 mi) N.E. of Mosul; of Nimroud, supposed to be the ancient Calah; and of Kouyunjik, in all probability the ancient Nineveh. In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples. They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks, and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage.
After the end of the full state control in 2003, there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq. Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid-2003, according to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations from 0.15 to 17 television stations owned by Iraqis, and 200 Iraqi newspapers owned and operated. Significantly, there have been many of these newspapers in numbers disproportionate to the population of their locations. For example, in Najaf, which has a population of 300,000, is being published more than 30 newspapers and distributed.
Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then. Stages are: pre-invasion preparation, and the war and the actual choice of targets, the first post-war period, and a growing insurgency and hand over power to the Iraqi Interim Government (IIG) and Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.[page needed]
Iraqi cuisine has a long history going back some 10,000 years – to the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Ancient Persians. Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals – the first cookbooks in the world. Ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia, was home to many sophisticated and highly advanced civilisations, in all fields of knowledge – including the culinary arts. However, it was in the medieval era when Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate that the Iraqi kitchen reached its zenith. Today the cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influences from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Turkey, Iran and the Greater Syria area.
Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include – vegetables such as aubergine, tomato, okra, onion, potato, courgette, garlic, peppers and chilli, cereals such as rice, bulgur wheat and barley, pulses and legumes such as lentils, chickpeas and cannellini, fruits such as dates, raisins, apricots, figs, grapes, melon, pomegranate and citrus fruits, especially lemon and lime.
Similarly with other countries of Western Asia, chicken and especially lamb are the favourite meats. Most dishes are served with rice – usually Basmati, grown in the marshes of southern Iraq. Bulgur wheat is used in many dishes – having been a staple in the country since the days of the Ancient Assyrians.
Football is the most popular sport in Iraq. Football is a considerable uniting factor in Iraq following years of war and unrest. Basketball, swimming, weightlifting, bodybuilding, boxing, kick boxing and tennis are also popular sports.
The Iraqi Football Association is the governing body of football in Iraq, controlling the Iraqi National Team and the Iraqi Premier League (also known as Dawri Al-Nokba). It was founded in 1948, and has been a member of FIFA since 1950 and the Asian Football Confederation since 1971. The biggest club in Iraq is Al Shorta, who won back-to-back league titles in 2013 and 2014 and were the first ever winners of the Arab Champions League. The Iraqi National Football Team were the 2007 AFC Asian Cup champions after defeating Saudi Arabia in the final by 1–0 thanks to a goal by captain Younis Mahmoud and they have participated in two FIFA competitions (the 1986 FIFA World Cup and the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup).
Despite having mobile phones in the middle east since 1995, Iraqis were only able to use mobile phones after 2003. Mobile phones were banned under Saddam's rule. Currently upwards to 78% of Iraqis own a mobile phone.
According to Iraqi Ministry of Communication, Iraq is now in the second phase of building and launching a multipurpose strategic satellite.
On 18 January 2012, Iraq was connected to the undersea communications network for the first time.
This had an immense impact on internet speed, availability and usage in Iraq.
On 2 October 2013, the Iraqi Minister for Communication ordered the internet prices to be lowered by a third. This is an attempt to boost usage and comes as a result of significant improvements in Internet infrastructure in the country.
- Embassies overseas of Republic of İraq: جريدة الصباح تنشر احصائية وزارة التخطيط لعدد نفوس سكان العراق لسنة[dead link] Archived February 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Iraq". CIA Factbook.
- "Iraq". International Monetary Fund.
- "World Bank GINI index". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 9. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Article 125 of the Iraqi Constitution.http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/454f50804.pdf
- "Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America". 2007-11-26.
- "Top 10 Battles for the Control of Iraq". Livescience.com. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- Basu, Moni (2011-12-18). "Deadly Iraq war ends with exit of last U.S. troops". CNN.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. 1979-12-10. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- Halloran, John A. (2000). "Sumerian Lexicon".
The name of the very ancient city of URUK- City of Gilgamesh is made up from the UR-city and UK- thought to mean existence (a-ku, a-Ki & a-ko. The Aramaic and Arabic root of IRQ and URQ denotes rivers or tributaries at the same times referring to condensation (of water).
- "often said to be from Arabic `araqa, covering notions such as "perspiring, deeply rooted, well-watered," which may reflect the impression the lush river-land made on desert Arabs. etymonline.com; see also "Rassam, Suha (2005-10-31). Christianity in Iraq: Its Origins and Development to the Present Day. Gracewing Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-85244-633-1.
- "Iraq". Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
- "ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Magnus Thorkell Bernhardsson (2005). Reclaiming a Plundered Past: Archaeology And Nation Building in Modern Iraq. University of Texas Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-292-70947-8.
The term Iraq did not encompass the regions north of the region of Tikrit on the Tigris and near Hīt on the Euphrates.
- Boesch, Hans H. (1 October 1939). "El-'Iraq". Economic Geography. 15 (4): 329. doi:10.2307/141771.
- Edwards, Owen (March 2010). "The Skeletons of Shanidar Cave". Smithsonian. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Ralph S. Solecki, Rose L. Solecki, and Anagnostis P. Agelarakis (2004). The Proto-Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 9781585442720.
- Carter, Robert A. and Philip, Graham Beyond the Ubaid: Transformation and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Number 63) The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (2010) ISBN 978-1-885923-66-0 p.2, at http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/saoc/saoc63.html; "Radiometric data suggest that the whole Southern Mesopotamian Ubaid period, including Ubaid 0 and 5, is of immense duration, spanning nearly three millennia from about 6500 to 3800 B.C".
- Al-Gailani Werr, L., 1988. Studies in the chronology and regional style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica, Volume 23.
- Crawford 2004, p. 75
- Roux, Georges (1993), "Ancient Iraq" (Penguin)
- Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press US. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953222-3.
- Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq
- "Seleucia on the Tigris". Umich.edu. 1927-12-29. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Rollinger, Robert (2006). "The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" again" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 65 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1086/511103.
- "The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Iraq.".
- electricpulp.com. "HATRA – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
- Charlotte Higgins. "When Syrians, Algerians and Iraqis patrolled Hadrian's Wall". the Guardian.
- "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: The Arts, Learning, and Knowledge (Conclusion)". Acs.ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on August 15, 2009.
- "Battuta's Travels: Part Three – Persia and Iraq". Sfusd.k12.ca.us. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Frazier, Ian (2005-04-25). "Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad". The New Yorker. p. 4. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Irrigation Systems, Ancient". Waterencyclopedia.com. 2009-01-11. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black Death)". The University of Calgary. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009.
- Kathryn Jean Lopez (14 September 2005). "Q&A with John Kelly on The Great Mortality on National Review Online". Nationalreview.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-16. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "Tamerlane – Timur the Lame Biography". Asianhistory.about.com. 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "14th century annihilation of Iraq". Mert Sahinoglu. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- ^ Nestorians, or Ancient Church of the East at Encyclopædia Britannica
- "Iraq – The Ottoman Period, 1534–1918". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Reidar Visser (2005). Basra, the Failed Gulf State: Separatism And Nationalism in Southern Iraq. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 19. ISBN 978-3-8258-8799-5. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Population crises and cycles in history A review of the book Population Crises and Population cycles by Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell. ISBN 0-9504066-5-1". valerieyule.com.au. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Tripp, Charles (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52900-6. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Wilson, Jeremy (1998). Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T. E. Lawrence. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0750918772.
The exploits of T.E. Lawrence as British liaison officer in the Arab Revolt, recounted in his work Seven Pillars of Wisdom, made him one of the most famous Englishmen of his generation. This biography explores his life and career including his correspondence with writers, artists and politicians.
- "Oxford DNB article: Cox, Sir Percy Zachariah".
- Liam Anderson; Gareth Stansfield (2005). The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy, Or Division?. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4039-7144-9.
Sunni control over the levels of power and the distribution of the spoils of office has had predictable consequences- a simmering resentment on the part of the Shi'a...
- Williams, Timothy (2009-12-02). "In Iraq's African Enclave, Color Is Plainly Seen". The New York Times.
- Ongsotto et.al. Asian History Module-based Learning Ii' 2003 Ed. p69. 
- Lyman, p.23
- Cleveland, William (2016). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841763712.
- Hardy, Roger (2005-09-22). "The Iran–Iraq war: 25 years on". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- S-RES-487(1981) Security Council Resolution 487 (1981)". United Nations. Retrieved 19 June 2011., "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-21. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Jonathan Steele (7 June 2002). "The Bush doctrine makes nonsense of the UN charter". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2010, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2002/jun/07/britainand911.usa
- Tyler, Patrick E. "Officers Say U.S. Aided Iraq in War Despite Use of Gas" New York Times August 18, 2002.
- "The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds A Middle East Watch Report". Human Rights Watch. 2006-08-14. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Black, George (July 1993) . Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign against the Kurds / Western Asia Watch. New York • Washington • Los Angeles • London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-108-8. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- Hiltermann, Joost R. (February 1994) . Bureaucracy of Repression: The Iraqi Government in Its Own Words / Western Asia Watch. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-127-4. Archived from the original on 2006-10-28. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- "Charges against Saddam dropped as genocide trial resumes". Agence France-Presse. January 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-01-01.
- Hiltermann, J. R. (2007). A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of Halabja. Cambridge University Press. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0-521-87686-5. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Rick Atkinson (1993). Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 284–285. ISBN 978-0-395-71083-8. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "The Ameriya Shelter – St. Valentine's Day Massacre". Uruknet.de. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- "'Smarter' bombs still hit civilians". Christian Science Monitor. 2002-10-22. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Ian Black (2007-08-22). "'Chemical Ali' on trial for brutal crushing of Shia uprising". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- "Iraq surveys show 'humanitarian emergency'". 12 August 1999. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Spagat, Michael (8 July 2010). "Truth and death in Iraq under sanctions" (PDF). Significance. 7 (3): 116–120. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2010.00437.x.
- Rubin, Michael (December 2001). "Sanctions on Iraq: A Valid Anti-American Grievance?". Middle East Review of International Affairs. 5 (4): 100–115.
- "Bush's "16 Words" on Iraq & Uranium: He May Have Been Wrong But He Wasn't Lying". FactCheck.org. July 26, 2004. Archived from the original on 2010-03-05.
- Borger, Julian (2004-10-07). "There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq". guardian.co.uk. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- "John Simpson: 'The Iraq memories I can't rid myself of'". BBC News. 2013-03-19. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Pfiffner, James (February 2010). "US Blunders in Iraq: De-Baathification and Disbanding the Army" (PDF). Intelligence and National Security. 25 (1): 76–85. doi:10.1080/02684521003588120. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Gordon, Michael R. (2008-03-17). "Fateful Choice on Iraq Army Bypassed Debate". New York Times.
- " US Blunders in Iraq" "Intelligence and National Security Vol. 25, No. 1, 76–85, February 2010"
- "Can the joy last?". The Economist. 2011-09-03.
- "U.S. cracks down on Iraq death squads". CNN. 24 July 2006.
- Jackson, Patrick (2007-05-30). "Who are Iraq's Mehdi Army?". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Al Qaeda's hand in tipping Iraq toward civil war". Christian Science Monitor / Al-Quds Al-Arabi. 2006-03-20.
- Thomas Ricks (2006) Fiasco: 414
- "Saddam death 'ends dark chapter'". BBC News. 2006-12-30. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- "Saddam Hussein's Two Co-Defendants Hanged in Iraq". Bloomberg L.P. 2007-01-15. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- Qassim Abdul-Zahra (2007-03-20). "Saddam's Former Deputy Hanged in Iraq". Abcnews.go.com. Archived from the original on 2007-03-23. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- Ferguson, Barbara (11 September 2007). "Petraeus Says Iraq Troop Surge Working". Arab News. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
- Iraq Bill Demands U.S. Troop Withdraw Associated Press, Fox News, 10 May 2007
- BBC NEWS 21 February 2007, Blair announces Iraq troops cut
- Al-Jazeera ENGLISH, 22 February 2007, Blair announces Iraq troop pullout
- "151,000 civilians killed since Iraq invasion". The Guardian. 10 January 2008.
- "Civilian deaths may top 1 million, poll data indicate". Los Angeles Times. 14 September 2007.
- "US soldiers leave Iraq's cities". BBC. 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- "After years of war, Iraqis hit by frenzy of crime". Associated Press.
- "Violence Grows in Iraq as American troops withdraw". FOX. 2009-05-09.
- "Iraqi civilian deaths drop to lowest level of war". Reuters. 2009-11-30.
- Sly, Liz (12 February 2011). "Egyptian revolution sparks protest movement in democratic Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- Salem, Paul (29 November 2012). "INSIGHT: Iraq's Tensions Heightened by Syria Conflict". Middle East Voices (Voice of America). Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Iraq Sunni protests in Anbar against Nouri al-Maliki". BBC News. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Protests engulf west Iraq as Anbar rises against Maliki". BBC News. 2 January 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Suicide bomber kills 32 at Baghdad funeral march". Fox News. Associated Press. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Iraq crisis: Battle grips vital Baiji oil refinery". BBC. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Spencer Ackerman and agencies (11 August 2014). "Kerry slaps down Maliki after he accuses Iraqi president of violating constitution". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Salama, Vivian (13 August 2014). "Tensions high in Iraq as support for new PM grows". Stripes. Archived from the original on 2014-08-13. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "White House hails al-Maliki departure as 'major step forward'". The Times. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Iraq's new prime minister-designate vows to fight corruption, terrorism". Fox News. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- The Revenge of Geography, p 353, Robert D. Kaplan – 2012
- "Guide to political groups in Iraq". BBC News. 11 November 2010.
- "Failed States Index Scores 2010". fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 2010-06-28.
- "The Failed States Index 2010". fundforpeace.org.
- "Freedom in the World 2013" (PDF). Freedom House. 2013. p. 21. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "The Failed States Index 2013". fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 2015-02-06.
- "Iraq's Incumbent PM Nouri Al-Maliki Grows More Isolated As He Clings To Power". Huffington Post. 13 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Abadi agonistes". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Wagner, Thomas (2005-10-25). "Iraq's Constitution Adopted by Voters". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2006-02-18. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Iraq Personal Status Law of 1959 (ABA Translation)" (PDF). American Bar Association. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Women In Personal Status Laws: Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria" (PDF). SHS Papers in Women's Studies/ Gender Research, No. 4. UNESCO. July 2005.
- "Iraq, Republic of". Law.emory.edu. 1983-03-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Fox, Jonathan (2008). A World Survey of Religion and the State. Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-139-47259-3. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Religion, Law, and Iraq's Personal Status Code". Islamopedia Online. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Bremer will reject Islam as source for law". NBC News. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Shia fume over Bremer sharia threat". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Carroll, Rory; Borger, Julian (2005-08-22). "US relents on Islamic law to reach Iraq deal". London: The Guardian, 21 August 2005.
- "Annex H 2010 Updates". Home.comcast.net. January 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-10-26.
- Swanson, Daniel M. (April 3, 2008) Coalition team assists in building combat force Archived November 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Department of Defense.
- "The New Iraqi Security Forces". Web.archive.org. 2006-04-20. Archived from the original on 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Magee, Thomas M. (July–August 2008). "Fostering Iraqi Army Logistics Success". Army Logistician. 40 (4).
- "Iraq Weekly Status Report March 21, 2007" (PDF). Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs US Department of State. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "US-Iraq SOFA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-25. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- "Strategic Framework Agreement" (PDF). p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- "Iraq Joins the Chemical Weapons Convention". The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons -Opcw.org. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Muhanad Mohammed (December 19, 2012). "Iran, Iraq seek diplomatic end to border dispute". Reuters. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- "TURKEY:Relations with Iraq become explosive". Ipsnews.net. October 30, 2007.
- "24 soldiers killed in attack in Turkey". CNN. 2011-10-19.
- Iraqi Constitution, Article 4.
- "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post. February 24, 2014.
- Graff, Peter (2012-03-12). "Fear as death squads hunt Iraq's gays and emos". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Saddam's rule 'better' for gay Iraqis". BBC News. 2009-07-06. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Unemployment Threatens Democracy in Iraq" (PDF). USAID Iraq. January 2011.
- "Iraq's economy: Past, present, future". Reliefweb.int. 2003-06-03. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- "G7, Paris Club Agree on Iraq Debt Relief". Web.archive.org. 2004-11-21. Archived from the original on 2004-11-21. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Joe Weisenthal (2011-02-22). "FORGET THE BRICs: Citi's Willem Buiter Presents The 11 "3G" Countries That Will Win The Future". Business Insider. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Coalition Provisional Authority. "Iraq Currency Exchange". Archived from the original on 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- Odio, Sam. Jim Cramer on the Iraqi Dinar. dinarprofits.com
- Sarah Bailey and Rachel Atkinson (2012-11-19). "Humanitarian action in Iraq: putting the pieces together". Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates". Energy Information Administration. 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Iraqi oil reserves estimated at 143B barrels". CNN. 2010-10-04.
- "Iraq's flood of 'cheap oil' could rock world markets". The Washington Times. 2013-02-03. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
- "Iraq Opens New Oil Terminal". Nuqudy English. 2012-02-12.
- "U.S. Electricity Imports from and Electricity Exports to Canada and Mexico Data for 2008". Web.archive.org. 2010-07-26. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Iraq facts and figures". OPEC. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
- "OPEC Announces it Will Absorb The Increase in Iraq's". Iraqidinar123. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
- "Iraqi Minister Resigns Over Electricity Shortages". 2010-06-22. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- Pepe Escobar on Iraq – The U.S. "Surge" in Iraq and the oil law. Sao Paulo, Brazil: The Real News. 2007-06-29. Archived from the original on 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- Glanz, James (2007-05-12). "Billions in Oil Missing in Iraq, US Study Says". New York Times.
- AlJazeeraEnglish (2010-07-29). "Inside Story – Iraq's missing billions". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- "Iraq Country Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Portal.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (2008-06-19). "Deals With Iraq Are Set to Bring Oil Giants Back". The New York Times.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (2008-09-10). "Iraq Cancels Six No-Bid Oil Contracts". The New York Times.
- "Oil firms awarded Iraq contracts". English.aljazeera.net. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- ""BP group wins Iraq oil contract", Al Jazeera English, June 30, 2009". English.aljazeera.net. 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Wong, Edward (June 28, 2011) "China Opens Oil Field in Iraq". The New York Times.
- Iraq123 News (October 01, 2013) "Development is Main Dependent on Export of Iraq". Iraq123 News.
- The Wall Street Journal(March 14, 2014) "Iraq's Oil Output Surges to Highest Level in Over 30 Years". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Tensions mount between Baghdad and Kurdish region as Kurds seize oil fields". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- UN Iraq Joint Analysis and Policy Unit (March 2013): Water in Iraq Factsheet.
- Smith, Matt (2013-09-16). "Iraq faces chronic housing shortage, needs foreign investment -minister". Reuters.
- Charles Philip Issawi (1988). The Fertile Crescent, 1800–1914: A Documentary Economic History. Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-19-504951-0. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Population Census". Central Organization for Statistics. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Population Of Iraq For The Years 1977 – 2011 (000)". Central Organization for Statistics. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Iraqi population reaches about 35 million". Aswat Al Iraq. 2013-04-27. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
- Assyria. UNPO (2008-03-25). Retrieved on 2013-12-08.
- Sharp, Heather (March 3, 2003). "BBC News – Iraq's 'devastated' Marsh Arabs". Retrieved 2008-05-01.
- "Chechens in the Middle East: Between Original and Host Cultures". Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. 2002-09-18. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- McCoy, John (2003). Geo-data: the world geographical encyclopedia. p. 281.
- Iraqi Constitution, Article 4, 1st section.
- Iraqi Constitution, Article 4, 4th section.
- Iraqi Constitution, Article 4, 5th section.
- Iraqi Constitution. iraqinationality.gov.iq
- "Iraq's unique place in the Sunni-Shia divide – Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center. 18 June 2014.
- "Shias dominate Sunnis in the new Iraq". CBC news World. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- "Iraqi Christians' long history". BBC News. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "IRAQ: Christians live in fear of death squads". IRIN Middle East. IRIN. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Assyria. UNPO (2008-03-25). Retrieved on 2013-12-08.
- Paul Schemm (2009-05-15). "In Iraq, an Exodus of Christians". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- Stone, Andrea (2003-07-27). "Embattled Jewish community down to last survivors". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- On Point: The United States Army In Operation Iraqi Freedom – Page 265, Gregory Fontenot – 2004
- "Warnings of Iraq refugee crisis". BBC News. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- "A displacement crisis". March 30, 2007. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
- Lochhead, Carolyn (2007-01-16). "40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Leyne, Jon (2007-01-24). "Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- "Plight of Iraqi refugees worsens as Syria, Jordan impose restrictions".
- Black, Ian (2007-11-22). "Iraqi refugees start to head home" (PDF). The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- "Will Iraq's 1.3 million refugees ever be able to go home?". London: The Independent. December 16, 2011.
- "Christian areas targeted in Baghdad attacks". BBC. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- Sabah, Zaid; Jervis, Rick (March 23, 2007). "Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq". USA Today.
- "USCIS – Iraqi Refugee ProcessingFact Sheet". Uscis.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- "Demographic Data of Registered Population". UNHCR. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Iraqi refugees flee war-torn Syria and seek safety back home". UNHCR. 18 June 2013.
- "Health". SESRIC. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Demography". SESRIC. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Life expectancy at birth, total (Iraq)". SESRIC. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "High-Tech Healthcare in Iraq, Minus the Healthcare". CorpWatch. January 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-07-17.
- "Literacy rates of 15–24 years old, both sexes, percentage". Millennium Development Goals Indicators. United Nations. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Iraq". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Touma, Habib Hassan (1996). The Music of the Arabs. Amadeus Press. ISBN 1574670816.
- "The Iraqi Maqam".
- Kojaman. "Jewish Role in Iraqi Music". Retrieved 2007-09-09.
- Manasseh, Sara (February 2004). "An Iraqi samai of Salim Al-Nur" (PDF). Newsletter (3). London: Arts and Humanities Research Board Research Centre for Cross-Cultural Music and Dance Performance. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2, 2005. Retrieved 2007-09-09.
- Al-Marashi, Ibrahim (2007). "Toward an Understanding of Media Policy and Media Systems in Iraq". Center for Global Communications Studies, Occasional Paper Series. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Foods of Iraq: Enshrined With A Long History". ThingsAsian. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- BBC News – Iraq 10 years on: In numbers. Bbc.co.uk (2013-03-20). Retrieved on 2013-12-08.
- Iraq to build and launch a $600 million strategic satellite into space | (-: One Happy Iraq :-). Onehappyiraq.wordpress.com (2013-10-02). Retrieved on 2013-12-08.
- Hall, Camilla. (2012-01-18) Undersea cable aids Iraq's slow development. FT.com. Retrieved on 2013-12-08.(registration required)
- Ministry of Communications. Moc.gov.iq (2013-02-04). Retrieved on 2015-11-15.
- Shadid, Anthony 2005. Night Draws Near. Henry Holt and Co., NY, US ISBN 0-8050-7602-6
- Hanna Batatu, "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978
- Charles Glass, "The Northern Front: A Wartime Diary"' Saqi Books, London, 2004, ISBN 0-86356-770-3
- A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921. (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
- By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins) With illustrations and a map, 1908 (1909 ed). (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
- "Iraqi Constitution" (PDF). Ministry of Interior – General Directorate For Nationality. 2006-01-30. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Benjamin Busch, "'Today is Better than Tomorrow'. A Marine returns to a divided Iraq", Harper's Magazine, October 2014, pp. 29–44.
- Global Arms Exports to Iraq 1960–1990, Rand Research report
- General information
- "Iraq". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Iraq Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption Portal
- Iraq web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- Iraq at DMOZ
- Iraq profile from the BBC News
|Saudi Arabia||Saudi Arabia||Kuwait · Persian Gulf|