Al Jawhara is the daughter of Hassa Al Sudairi of the Al Sudairi family, one of the most powerful families in Nejd. Her father is King Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The princess is one of the 11 children of this marriage and is thus a full-sister or half-sister of every subsequent King of Saudi Arabia. She is the full-sister of the Sudairi brothers, two of whom succeeded their father as King of Saudi Arabia, including the present monarch, King Salman. She was particularly close to her brother Prince Sultan.
Al Jawhara bint Abdulaziz is married to Khalid bin Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman (born 1937), a son of Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman. Prince Khalid is a well-known owner and breeder of champion racehorses in the United States and the United Kingdom, and winner, at some stage, of almost every Classic race in England and France.