Alexander Butlerov

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"Butlerov" redirects here. For the lunar crater, see Butlerov (crater).
Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov
Butlerov, A. M. 1828-1886.jpg
Alexander Butlerov
Born (1828-09-15)September 15, 1828
Chistopol, Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire
Died August 17, 1886(1886-08-17) (aged 57)
Butlerovka, Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire
Nationality Russian
Fields Chemistry
Institutions University of St. Petersburg, Kazan State University
Alma mater Kazan State University
Doctoral advisor Nikolay Zinin
Doctoral students Alexey Yevgrafovich Favorsky, Vladimir Markovnikov, Alexander Mikhaylovich Zaytsev

Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; September 15, 1828 – August 17, 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).

He first proposed the idea of possible tetrahedral arrangement of valence bonds in carbon compounds in 1862.[1]

The crater Butlerov on the Moon is named after him.

Alexander Butlerov was born in Chistopol into a landowning family.


  • Arbuzov, B. A. (1978). "150th Anniversary of the birth of A. M. Butlerov". Russian Chemical Bulletin 27 (9): 1791–1794. doi:10.1007/BF00929226. 
  • Rocke, Alan J. (1981). "Kekulé, Butlerov, and the Historiography of the Theory of Chemical Structure". British Journal for the History of Science 14: 27–57. doi:10.1017/s0007087400018276. 
  • Bykov, G. V. (1982). "K istoriografii teorii khimicheskogo stroeniia". Voprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki. 1982:4: 121–130. 
  • Brooks, Nathan (1998). "Alexander Butlerov and the Professionalization of Science in Russia". Russian Review 57: 10–24. doi:10.1111/0036-0341.00004.