Altitoxin is secreted by the venom gland of the South African spitting (or fattail) scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus.
Altitoxin is 58 amino acid residues long and has a molecular mass of 6598 Da; it has 3 disulfide bridges. It has large homology to other toxins from the venom of Parabuthus transvaalicus, including bestoxin, birtoxin, ikitoxin and dortoxin.
Altitoxin has sequence homology to scorpion β-toxins, suggesting it might target sodium channels. However, its depressing action following injection into mice  is not in agreement with the effect of β-toxins on sodium channels. Related scorpion toxins, which include birtoxin and bestoxin, exhibit highly divergent biological activity, indicating that the mode of action of these toxins is highly diverse.
- B. Inceoglu, J. Lango, I.N. Pessah, B.D. Hammock. Three structurally related, highly potent, peptides from the venom of the Parabuthus Transvaalicus possess divergent biological activity. Toxicon 45 (2005) 727-733.