Anchettidurgam

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Coordinates: 12°35′24″N 77°53′24″E / 12.590°N 77.890°E / 12.590; 77.890 Anchetti- Durgam ; a hill fort 3 miles eastward of Kela-mangalam, and about half a mile from the Kela-mangalam- Raya-kota Road. It was strongly fortified in the days of Haidar and Tipu, and guarded Kela-mangalam against attack from below ghats. The hill Itself, a survey station, is 3,192’ in height; if is wedge – shaped, and on the south it is narrow and sheer. The ascent lies from the village of Anchett- Durgam, the Pets of former days, slightly fortified with a slender stone wall, and built n a stony platform on the north flank of the hill. The ascent leads through some remarkable cleft boulders, 30’ to 40’ in height. There is not much space available on the summit, and very little remains overrun with prickly- pear and fort. The place is pitifully overrun with prickly-pear and aloes. There is a small temple on top, with a stone lingam and nandi; a naural cleft, in which water stands perennially, crosses the summit in a direction parallel to the main axis of the hill. Anchetti – Durgam was held by Tipu when the Third Mysore We began, and surrendered to Major Gowdie’s Brigade, along. With Nilagiri and Rathnagiri, between July 15 and 20,1791,priorto his famous attack on Raya-kota. It was garrisoned by a detachment of the 7th Madras Bttalion1.Again in the fourth War, Anchetti Dhurgam surrendered along with Nilagiri to Major John Cuppage, commanding the list Battalion,6th Regiment, March 5, 1799. Ankusagiri(altitude 3,038’)so called from its fancied resemblance to an elephant goad, lies about 5 miles east of Sulagiri, and was the capture of Masti (Berikai) Poligars, The construction of Fort and Peta is said to have been begun by one Ankusa Rayalu, King of Kundani, who lost his Kingdom to the building, and, on the capture of Masti by Venkoji,Pedda Chokka Gaudu transferred the capital to Ankusagiri. Ansagiri itself was lost to the Marathas a few years later, but regained with the help of a force from Magadi.In 1766-7 Ankusagiri was taken after a foru months siege by Haidar ali, and the Poligar fled to the Marthas at chittoor.His capital was restored to him on the conclusion of peace between Haidar and the Peshwa.On the advent of colonel Smith, the Poligar threw in his lot with the English, and on Colonel Smith’s withdrawal, Haidar again attacked and took the capital, which remained in his and Tipu’s hand (except for a short interval during the Third Mysore War till the arrival of Lord Harris In 1799) The Peta was protected on the south by the drug itself, and on the north by a lesser hill known as Gaditha-Gutta, which bears traces of fortification. Even in the paimesh

Accounts the spot is spoken of as “old village site, but little remains to indicate the once important town, except a few potsherds and one or two grind-stones in a wilderness of pickly-pear. There is a small temple dedicated to Timmaraya, the ancestral deity of the Poligars race to dedicated to the upkeep of which is allotted the village of Chinna-

Sadanapalli, 1. Wilson II,pp,209-210 2. Beatson p.55.An interesting account of the capture of Anchetti –Durgham on July 18, 1791, is given on pages 132-5 of the Asiatic Quarterly Review for July 1912.The hero assault was Lieutenat corner .The approach to the third fort was to so strong that “five old women states” the best mode of attack “on such hill forts is “to push forward with guns at once and by firing at the lower walls till the numerous inhabitants retire up to the of the hills when, elevating the guns every shot striking amongst a crowd of people mixed with the garrison, the governors are overpowered by the cries of women and children and are obliged to surrender. 3. The name is, according to another version, said to be derived from “ankusa raya”a name belonging to several members of the Jagadeva Raya Dynasty 4. Vide s.v.Berikai, pp. 126,127. And cheap one)and boots are given them and their pay is increased a rupee, in some cases two rupees, per mensem above their ordinary wages; and with this trifling expense to Government, the remounts are not only broken to saddle, but can be put through (as single ride) in the school, at a walk, trot or canter, that would do credit to any regiment “With drill thus going on in the three lines, morning and evening ,each Remount gets an hour’s riding three days a week . “I would beg to bring this admirable system of exercise prominently to notice in the hope that something of the same sort may be adopted in the reserve depots in Bengal, where I am informed horses are only exercised in hand by the syces. “The routes by which Remounts reach Hosur are as under;- 1st Australians are purchased in Madras, chiefly in January and February ,and are sent by Railway to Malur , a station in the Bangalore line ,twenty –four miles from Hosur ,which distance they march. 2nd A few Persians have been brought by rail to Hosur from Bombay ,but the general route for them is by st9amer from whence they march to Hosur ,or by boat from Bombay to Beypore ,and route thence by rail to Hosur via Malur. 3rd The northern Horses are imported via Sind and Karachi, Thence by Boat to Mangalore ,and route march to hosur ;the old system of registering these horses as Toorkimans, Heerati ,etc.,,, which prevailed in Madras has now been abandoned and they are now all registered as Northern ,and are purchased for British and Native Carvarly ,being considered here,as in Bengal ,unsuited for Artillery. “The above horses are also usually purchased at Hosur during January and February ; Remounts are generally drafted to the services in September , and after that 150 Remounts are kept in reserve in the Depot .Each remount is supposed to be turned into the ranks at a cost of Rs.700,which includes his own price and a share of all Depot Expenses.” In 1881 It was decided that the general management and supervision of the Army Remounting operations of India should be controlled by the various authorities who had reported to the Government of India on matters connected of the past campaign in Afghanistan showed that the Army Commission were well justified in recommending for adoption. Under this new arrangement Person and Northern horses which up to date were purchased at Hosur, were ordered to be purchased for Madras in Bombay by the Remount Agent sent there by the director, who was ordered to advertise requirements annually – thus rendering it unnecessary to make advances from Madras to the dealers in these classes of horses and avoiding competition which hither to existed between Madras and Bombay markets, and which had proved one of the causes one of the causes of the decline of the supply of Eastern horses to Bombay. 1. Government of India, Military Department Letter No.1334 S.D .,dated 7 September 1881 The designation of the Remount agent was in March 1883 altered to superintendent, Reserve Remount Depot, and subsequently to superintendent, Remount Depot .The future strength of horses to kept at the Hosur Depot was fixed at 300, which number was to be kept during the non-purchasing season ;the number was afterwards raised to 470,till the strength at Hosur was reduce to 370, and subsequently to 300.

    Up to 1883 a Committee of the officers, one from each branch of the Services, viz., British Artillery, British Carvarly and Native Carvarly and the Inspecting Veterinary officer in attendance, used to assemble in September to pass chargers and remounts into the services .This practice was dropped in 1881 so far as Eastern horses were concerned, as Government decided that these horses were to go direct to corps from the market where they were purchased .This was found to be the best and most economical plan,for put any other extra expense on the Eastern horse, which in the first instances  costs more than he is worth in many cases, would not be a sound policy .the Committee, however, Assembled for passing Australian remounts to the service till September 1883,when it was finally abolished.

The horses purchased in Madras are all obtained under the commission system, which is regulated by the merits of shippers’ previous year’s supply. The horses purchased under this system, are generally speaking, very favorably reported on. There is no very large public demand for horses in Madras, and therefore the commission system was found necessary .It was at one time considered as having the disadvantage of placing the trade in the hands of a selected few shippers, instead of leaving it open to competition, as in Calcutta . Owing, however to the paucity of wheelers, Government approved in 1893-94 the partial introduction of the commission system to certain selected shippers in Calcutta for wheels horses and the year 1898-99 was the last in which Australian remounts were purchased in Calcutta and Bombay under the open market system Government having sanctioned the introduction of the commission system, already in force in Madras, at the other two Presidency Towns . Briefly the advantage of this are: (i) That a higher class of horse than here to fore is obtained in Calcutta an Bombay –as, under the commission system, the shippers have the assurance of selling, within three weeks of landing, the number of horses ordered from them, provided the horses are up to the standard required . (ii) The transaction being thus attend with little risk and an assured profit, they import the exact class of horses ordered, whereas with the open marked system, no shippers had any certainty of the number of horses he would be able to sell to Government, and he therefore brought a lot of horses for which, from the uncertainty of sale, small prices a lot were paid in Australia. (iii) If more horses are required by Government, each shipper is bound to ship,on mobilization, a number of horses equal to that of his annual commission, both in numbers and class, Government undertaking to pay the difference, if any, between the cost of freight and insurance of the horses accepted, and those which obtained at the time of his last shipment. About the year 1897-98 a Reserve of 1000 horses, over and above the ordinary requirements was ordered to be maintained, and was thoroughly established by the end of the year . The number of reserve horses allotted and now maintained at the Depot is 150. The present authorized strength of this Depot, including the Reserved is therefore 450 composed of— H.A F.A. Cavalry total Ordinary .. .. 60 160 80 300 Reserve .. .. 45 105 .. 150

105 265 80 450 In order to reduce the expenses of keeping up the Reserve of remounts the modified liberty system, in force on the Continent for remounts was started at the Saharanpur depot as an experiment, and was attended with very satisfactory results .the paddocks .These horses being neither groomed nor ridden, the staff required to look after and exercise them is very small. As the horses are not intended for immediate issue, they do not require such a high rate of feed as remounts held up and worked for early issue. This system was introduced to each of the Remount Depots, and the strength allotted to Hosur,Viz., 450, is divided into “non-liberty” and “Liberty horses” as follows:-

                                                            H.A     F.A    Cavalry.     Total
                 Non-liberty  ..      ..       ..   60       160         30           250
                 Liberty         ..      ..       ..    45      105        50        200

105 265 80 450 The produnce of the depot Farm being only sufficient to feed 100 horses instead of 450 the sanctioned strength of the depot sanction was accorded, in 1901 for the purchase of 443 acress of land adjacent to the Hosur Remount Depot for farming purposes with a view to supplementing the supply of fodder obtained from Depot lands. Taking into account the loss to Government of interest on capital to be invested to repay the outlay in about 18 years, allowing for normal season. This new land was considered to yield sufficient hay to feed 122 more horses, or about half the authorized strength of the depot The land was acquired for the Depot by 1902-03,and within a year the greater portion of this new land was well established as a grass farm.this extend has since been added to by the purchases of 320 acres and the depot is now practically independent in the matter of fodder. The extend of land now in possession of the depot is 1258 acres of which 258 acres are occupied by buildings roads etc., the remainder being available for grass and other cultivation. In addition the Government have leased 214 acres of land to supplement the folder supply required by the Depot the average. The average profit on the working of the Depot Farm for the last 20 years has been Rs.44525 . The only class of horse now maintained at the Depot is “Australian” Nilagiri-Durgam is a little fort situated about two milles east by south of anchetti –durgam and about a mile from the Kelamangalam Rayakottai road . The hill itself is a longish ridge running roughly north and south sheer to the west and accessible only from the east where a smooth surface of bare rock present the cleanest glacis to be found in district. The peta now deserted lay at the foot of the hill to the south east .A fort walls of which scant relics remain, skirted the foot of the glaicis half-way up the hill was a second line of rampart, now shown by a wall of loose un cemented and unshaped stones, and the top of the glacis is created with a third line of defense, also of poor workmanship. The fort which does not give an impression of much natural strength, was held by Tipu when the Third War broke out, and surrendered to Major Gowdies Bridge, along with Anchetti Durgam and Ratnagiri, between July 15 and 20, 1791,and was promptly dismantled .it was re-garrisoned by Tipu after the Peace and was abandoned again in the Fourth War on the Approach of major Jhon cuppage with the 1st Battalion, 6th Regiment who occupied the post on 5 March 1799. 1. Military Department letter No.2009-D,dated 27 March 1901. 2. Nilagiri-Durgam is figured in allan’s views in the mysore country 3. Wilson, Vol II,pp. 209, 210

On 5 March 2017 the People of Anchetti Durgam, the well wishers of excavating the ancient things in and around Kelamangalam along with Midugarapalli Sri.Umapathi Swamiji the renovation works were takes place. The Hill top of Anchetti Durgam is about 3192 feets from the sea level. This Anchetti Durgam fort is one of the strongest forts in 17th centuries of Mysore kingdom. In 1791 British army was fights more than twice with Hider Ali and Tippu Sulthan to acquire the fort. Finally British commander Mejor Gowd lead a war and acquired the Anchetti Duram Fort with huge loss of lives by the soldiers. These was are the 3rd and 4th Mysore war were held in this historical Anchitti Durgam Fort.

After the hug loss of lives, no body were here to reach the hill top and fort, and the present Government of Tamil Nadu is not recognizing this ancient historical place, those the entrance of the fort was covered with large bushes. Those bushes were removed presently by with the help of youths and the villages near by Anchetti Durgam. Umapathy Swamiji was recognized the history of this place and explained the sculptures of ancient things those are presented here.

Here there is a beautiful temple of Lord Shiva in the hill top. The Shiva lingam is called SIVAKESAVA LINGAM and the pond called SEETHAMMA KOLAM. In this Seethamma Kolam the water won’t be dry even in hot summer seasons also. Swami ji performs the pooja’s and initiated the renovation works here.

This beauty of Anchetti Durgam Fort was painted with eucalyptus colours were kept in the 18th century and kept in Londan Library.

Anchettidurgam or Anchetty Durgam is a fort in the present day Krishnagiri district. In the 18th century the fort was under the rule of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. The fort was captured by the British in July 1791.

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