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Temporal range: Pleistocene
Aphanius fasciatus male.jpg
Aphanius fasciatus
Aphanius mesopotamicus (female).jpg
Aphanius mesopotamicus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cyprinodontiformes
Family: Cyprinodontidae
Genus: Aphanius
Nardo, 1827
Type species
Aphanius nanus
Nardo, 1827

Lebias Goldfuss, 1820 (invalid name)
Tellia Gervais, 1853
Micromugil Gulia, 1861
Kosswigichthys Sözer, 1942
Anatolichthys Kosswig & Sözer, 1945
Turkichthys Ermin, 1946
Aphaniops Hoedeman, 1951

Aphanius is a genus of pupfishes. Unlike other members of the family which are from the Americas, Aphanius species are native to northern Africa, southwestern Asia (as far east as India) and southern Europe. Several species in the genus have very small distributions and are seriously threatened.

Fossil record[edit]

Fossils of Aphanius are found in strata of the Pleistocene of Italy (age range: from 11.608 to 5.332 million years ago.). [1]

Fossil of Aphanius crassicaudus


The 39 recognized species in this genus are:


  1. ^ Paleobiology Database
  2. ^ Teimori, A., Esmaeili, H.R., Gholami, Z., Zarei, N. & Reichenbacher, B. (2012): Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran. ZooKeys, 215: 55-76.
  3. ^ A. crassicaudus at Fossilworks
  4. ^ a b Esmaeili, H.R., Teimori, A., Gholami, Z. & Reichenbacher, B. (2014): Two new species of the tooth-carp Aphanius (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) and the evolutionary history of the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species. Zootaxa, 3786 (3): 246–268.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Pfleiderer, S.J., Geiger, M.F. & Herder, F. (2014): Aphanius marassantensis, a new toothcarp from the Kızılırmak drainage in northern Anatolia (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae). Zootaxa, 3887 (5): 569–582.
  6. ^ Teimori, A., Esmaeili, H.R., Erpenbeck, D. & Reichenbacher, B. (2014): A new and unique species of the genus Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) from Southern Iran: A case of regressive evolution. Zoologischer Anzeiger – A Journal of Comparative Zoology, 253 (4): 327-337.
  7. ^ Alavi-Yeganeh, M.S., Keivany, Y., Seyfabadi, J., Kazemi, B. & Wallis, G.P. (2014): Taxonomic validity and phylogenetic relationships of a newly-described tooth-carp, Aphanius mesopotamicus Coad, 2009 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Zootaxa, 3780 (3): 594–600.
  8. ^ Gholami, Z., Esmaeili, H.R., Erpenbeck, D. & Reichenbacher, B. (2014): Phylogenetic analysis of Aphanius from the endorheic Kor River Basin in the Zagros Mountains, South-western Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 52 (2): 130–141.