Pre-production work began on the album in late 2006.In January 2007 Lord Tim started a thread on the band's online forum that detailed the writing and recording process, also revealing that the artwork for the album had already been completed, by the Colombian artist Felipe Machado Franco. Ascendence was recorded at Main Street Studios and the band's studio in Wollongong, Australia. The pop singer Tania Moran recorded backing vocals for several songs and guest musicians Chris Brooks and Mark Furtner added guitar solos in four tracks. Furtner was later added to the group as Lord's permanent second guitarist.
The bonus track varies according to regions. On the Australian release, it is a cover version of a song that originally appeared on the Pantera tribute album The Art of Shredding: A Tribute to Dime, but has since been entirely remixed. On the Japanese release, it is an X Japan cover featuring vocals from the singer of Japanese band Vigilante.