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Borrego Milkvetch up close.jpg
A. lentiginosus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Astragalus
Type species
Astragalus onobrychis[disputed ]

Over 3,000 species, see List of Astragalus species

  • Acanthophaca Nevski
  • Aragallus Neck. ex Greene
  • Astenolobium Nevski
  • Astracantha Podlech
  • Atelophragma Rydb.
  • Barnebyella Podlech
  • Batidophaca Rydb.
  • Biserrula L.[Note 1]
  • Brachyphragma Rydb.
  • Cnemidophacos Rydb.
  • Contortuplicata Medik.
  • Cryptorrhynchus Nevski
  • Ctenophyllum Rydb.
  • Cystium Steven
  • Didymopelta Regel & Schmalh.
  • Diholcos Rydb.
  • Diplotheca Hochst.
  • Erophaca Boiss.[Note 1]
  • Geoprumnon Rydb.
  • Gynophoraria Rydb.
  • Hamosa Medik.
  • Hedyphylla Steven
  • Hesperastragalus A. Heller
  • Hesperonix Rydb.
  • Holcophacos Rydb.
  • Homalobus Nutt.
  • Jonesiella Rydb.
  • Kentrophyta Nutt.
  • Kiapasia Woronow ex Grossh.
  • Lonchophaca Rydb.
  • Microphacos Rydb.
  • Myctirophora Nevski
  • Mystirophora Nevski
  • Neodielsia Harms
  • Oedicephalus Nevski
  • Onix Medik.
  • Orophaca (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton[Note 1]
  • Oxyglottis (Bunge) Nevski
  • Phaca L.
  • Phacomene Rydb.
  • Phacopsis Rydb.
  • Phyllolobium Fisch. ex Spreng.[Note 1]
  • Pisophaca Rydb.
  • Podlechiella Maassoumi & Kaz. Osaloo[Note 1]
  • Poecilocarpus Nevski
  • Pterophacos Rydb.
  • Sewerzowia Regel & Schmalh.
  • Thium Steud.
  • Tragacantha Mill.
  • Xylophacos Rydb.
Fruits and seeds of Astragalus hamosus

Astragalus is a large genus of over 3,000 species[1] of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae and the subfamily Faboideae. It is the largest genus of plants in terms of described species.[2] The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Common names include milkvetch (most species), locoweed (in North America, some species)[3] and goat's-thorn (A. gummifer, A. tragacanthus). Some pale-flowered vetches (Vicia spp.) are similar in appearance, but they are more vine-like than Astragalus.


Milkvetch species include herbs and shrubs with pinnately compound leaves. There are annual and perennial species. The flowers are formed in clusters in a raceme, each flower typical of the legume family, with three types of petals: banner, wings, and keel. The calyx is tubular or bell-shaped.[4][5]


Astragalus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including many case-bearing moths of the genus Coleophora: C. cartilaginella, C. colutella, C. euryaula, and C. onobrychiella feed exclusively on Astragalus, C. astragalella and C. gallipennella feed exclusively on the species Astragalus glycyphyllos, and C. hippodromica is limited to Astragalus gombo.


The genus was formally described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum.[6]

The name Astragalus is Greek, an old name for this group of plants which were believed to have a positive effect on goat milk production.[7]

Selected species[edit]


Traditional medicine[edit]

The natural gum tragacanth is made from several species of Astragalus occurring in the Middle East, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx,[9][10] and A. tragacanthus. Also A. propinquus (syn. A. membranaceus) has a history of use as a herbal medicine used in systems of traditional Chinese medicine[11] and Persian medicine.[12] In traditional Chinese medicine A. membranaceus has been used to reinforce qi and strengthen the superficial resistance, and promote the discharge of pus and the growth of new tissue.[13]

Medical research[edit]

Biotechnology firms are working on deriving a telomerase activator from Astragalus. The chemical constituent cycloastragenol (also called TAT2) is being studied to help combat HIV, as well as infections associated with chronic diseases or aging,[14] the National Institutes of Health states: "The evidence for using astragalus for any health condition is limited. High-quality clinical trials (studies in people) are generally lacking. There is some preliminary evidence to suggest that astragalus, either alone or in combination with other herbs, may have potential benefits for the immune system, heart, and liver, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer".[15]

Research at the UCLA AIDS Institute focused on the function of cycloastragenol in the aging process of immune cells, and its effects on the cells' response to viral infections. It appears to increase the production of telomerase, an enzyme that mediates the replacement of short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which play a key role in cell replication, including in cancer processes.[16]


Extracts of A. propinquus (syn. A. membranaceus) are marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use. A proprietary extract of the dried root of A. membranaceus, called TA-65, "was associated with a significant age-reversal effect in the immune system, in that it led to declines in the percentage of senescent cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells after six to twelve months of use".[17] There are mixed data regarding Astragalus, its effects on telomerase, and cancer. For example, although 80% of cancer cells utilize telomerase for their proliferation—a factor that might theoretically be exacerbated by Astragalus—the shortening of telomeres (resulting from such factors as stress and aging and possible contributors to malignancy) might also be mitigated by Astragalus. Thus, short telomeres result in chromosome instability, and the potential for telomere lengthening as a protection against cancer is possible.[18] Additionally, scientists recently reported that cancer cells may proliferate precisely because of the lack of differentiation occurring via damaged or shortened telomere length. They propose that "forced" elongation of telomeres promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell differentiation.

Side effects and toxicology[edit]

Astragalus may interact with medications that suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide.[15] It may also affect blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[15] Some Astragalus species can be toxic. For example, several species native to North America contain the alkaloid swainsonine, which may cause "locoism" in livestock.[15] The toxicity of Astragalus taxa varies.[19]

Ornamental use[edit]

Several species, including A. alpinus (bluish-purple flowers), A. hypoglottis (purple flowers), and A. lotoides, are grown as ornamental plants in gardens.


  1. ^ a b c d e This may actually be a valid genus.


  1. ^ "Astragalus L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  2. ^ Frodin, David G. (2004). "History and Concepts of Big Plant Genera". Taxon. 53 (3): 753–76. doi:10.2307/4135449. JSTOR 4135449.
  3. ^ "Astragalus (Locoweed) flowers". Retrieved 2013-07-05.
  4. ^ Xu, Langran; Podlech, Dietrich. "Astragalus". Flora of China. 10. Retrieved 9 December 2018 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ "A Guide to the Common Locoweeds and Milkvetches of New Mexico". New Mexico State University. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Astragalus L." International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  7. ^ Wilhelm, Gerould; Rericha, Laura (2017). Flora of the Chicago Region: A Floristic and Ecological Synthesis. Indiana Academy of Sciences.
  8. ^ USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland Accessed 17 September 2018
  9. ^ Astragalus membranaceus – Moench. Plants for a Future.
  10. ^ "Astragalus brachycalyx Fisch". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 24 December 2010.
  11. ^ "Astragalus | University of Maryland Medical Center". 2013-05-07. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
  12. ^ Zargary, A. Medicinal plants. 5th Edition.Tehran: Tehran University Publications 1990; pp. 312–314.
  13. ^ Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G. (2014). "Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): A review". Biochemical Pharmacology. 92 (1): 73–89. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. PMC 4212005. PMID 25083916.
  14. ^ "Herbal chemical helps combat HIV". United Press International. January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  15. ^ a b c d Astragalus, NCCAM.
  16. ^ Fauce, S. R.; Jamieson, B. D.; Chin, A. C.; Mitsuyasu, R. T.; Parish, S. T.; Ng, H. L.; Ramirez Kitchen, C. M.; Yang, O. O.; Harley, C. B.; Effros, R. B. (2008). "Telomerase-Based Pharmacologic Enhancement of Antiviral Function of Human CD8+ T Lymphocytes". The Journal of Immunology. 181 (10): 7400–6. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.10.7400. PMC 2682219. PMID 18981163.
  17. ^ Harley, Calvin B.; Liu, Weimin; Blasco, Maria; Vera, Elsa; Andrews, William H.; Briggs, Laura A.; Raffaele, Joseph M. (2011). "A Natural Product Telomerase Activator As Part of a Health Maintenance Program". Rejuvenation Research. 14 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1089/rej.2010.1085. PMC 3045570. PMID 20822369.
  18. ^ Hiyama, Keiko; Hiyama, Eiso; Tanimoto, Keiji; Nishiyama, Masahiko (2009). "Role of Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer". Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer. pp. 171–80. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-879-9_7. ISBN 978-1-60327-306-0.
  19. ^ Rios, J. L.; Waterman, P. G. (1997). "A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of Astragalus". Phytotherapy Research. 11 (6): 411–8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199709)11:6<411::AID-PTR132>3.0.CO;2-6.

External links[edit]