Augustinus Olomucensis

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Augustinus Olomucensis (March 1467, Olomouc[2] – 3 November 1513, Olomouc)[4] was a Moravian humanist and theologian. His birth name was Augustin Käsenbrot (or Käsenbrod), but he was also known as Augustinus Moravus or Augustinus Bemus, or, in Czech, as Augustin Moravský or Augustin Olomoucký (or Olomúcký). Augustinus is generally considered the foremost Moravian humanist of his time.[3][5]

Life[edit]

After the early death of his father, Augustinus grew up in the household of his uncle Andreas Ctiborius, who was canon at Olomouc.[6] Sponsored by Ctiborius and Johann Roth (1426–1506), Bishop of Wrocław, Augustinus studied at the Jagiellonian University at Kraków from 1484 to 1488,[7] where he was graduated as a magister of philosophy[5] and then at Padova. On 16 April 1494 he obtained the degree of a doctor in canon law in Ferrara.[8]

In 1496 he became secretary at the chancellery of Vladislaus II in Buda.[3] Throughout the years he would advance from secretary apparently to the post of vice-chancellor.[9] Augustinus was a stout opponent of the Moravian Church (Waldensians), and in his position at the chancellery he influenced the king to massive repressions against these, in the spirit of Heinrich Institoris.[9]

In 1497 Agustinus became canon at Brno,[3] and the following year he was chosen as provost at Olomouc, but because another candidate for that office recurred to Rome, Augustinus could take office only in 1506.[9]

Augustinus maintained intensive contacts with other humanists of his time, and was also a member of Conrad Celtis' Sodalitas Litterarum Danubiana in Vienna.[3] A passionate collector of coins, Augustinus presented the Sodalitas Litterarum Danubiana in 1508 a golden cup decorated with ancient coins.[3][10] The cup is today at the Dresden State Art Collections.[7][11] Augustin offered generous support to fellow humanists, such as to Valentin Eck,[12] whom he housed for some time, or to Johannes Cuspinian, whom he let peruse his large library, or to Celtis and Joachim Vadian, whom he sent copies of manuscripts they otherwise had no access to.[9]

Before 1511, Augustinus became canon in Prague and in Wrocław. In 1511 he resigned from his office at the chancellery at Buda and moved permananetly to Olomouc, where he died two years later.[13]

Works[edit]

  • Dialogus in defensionem poetices, printed in Venice, 1493.
  • De modo epistolandi, printed by Simon Bevilaqua in Venice, 1495.
  • (Editor): Tabularum Joannis blanchini canones, astronomical tables of Giovanni Bianchini of 1440. Printed by Simon Bevilaqua in Venice 1495.
  • De secta Waldensium, printed by Konrad Baumgarten at Olomouc, 1500.[14]
  • Catalogus Episcoporum Olomucensium, dedicated to the Bishop of Olomouc, Stanislaus Thurzó, printed by Hieronymus Vietor and Johannes Singriener in Vienna, 1511.[15] Republished and expanded in 1831 by Richter.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Czapla, Ralf G.: "Augustinus Moravus", in Worstbrock, Franz Josef (ed.): Deutscher Humanismus 1480–1520: Verfasserlexikon : A–K, Berlin: de Gruyter 2005, pp. 61–72. ISBN 3-11-017572-X.
  2. ^ Truhlář, Josef: Humanismus a humanisté v Čechách za krále Vladislava II., Praha, 1894, p. 64, states that "according to all accounts but one, he was born in Olomouc", the one dissenting account being a verse in a poem written by Augustinus himself, which could be construed to imply that he was born in Bohemia; an interpretation that Truhlář rejects. Czapla gives a brief overview of the controversy about Augustin's birthplace, which has its roots in his sometimes giving his last name as "Käsenbrot von Wssehrd" ("of Všehrdy"). (There are two places called Všehrdy, both in Bohemia, and it is uncertain to which one "Wssehrd" referred.)[1]
  3. ^ a b c d e f Otto's encyclopedia (Ottův slovník naučný): Käsenbrot Augustin. URL last accessed 2011-11-05.
  4. ^ a b Richter, Franciscus Xav.: Augustini Olomucensis Epsicoporum Olomucensium Series, edited, continued, and annotated by F.X. Richter, "SS. Theologiae Bacalaureus, Histoiriae Universalis Professor Emeritus, Nunc Caesaro-Regial Universitatis Olomucensis Bibliothecarius", Olomouc 1831. An expanded re-edition of biographies of the Bishops of Olomouc, composed originally by Augustinus Olomucensis in 1511 and dedicated to Thurzo.[3] Richter gives on pages VI to X a brief account of Augustinus' live, concluding with the inscription on Augustinus' grave in the cathedral of Olomouc: Augustinus de Olmütz juris Pontificii ac liberalium Artium Doctor, Olomucensis et Brunensis Ecclesarium Praepositus, hic ad vocem tubae Archangeli quiesco ab anno Incarnati dei MDXIII tertio nonas Novembris. Vixi annos 46, mensibus octo. ("... died 1513 on the third day before the Nones of November. He lived 46 years, 8 months". The third day before the Nones of November (iii Non. Nov.) happens to be November 3.)
  5. ^ a b Kouřil, Miloš: "Aus der Bibliothek des Humanisten Johann Roth", in Humanistica Lovaniensia, Vol. XLIII, Leuven University Press 1994, p. 99–105; on Augustinus Olomucensis p.103f.
  6. ^ Czapla, p. 61. Ctiborius is not identical to Andreas Stiborius.
  7. ^ a b Konečný, Lubomír: "Augustine Käsenbrot of Olomouc, His Golden Bowl in Dresden, and the Renaissance Revival of "Poetic" Bacchus" in Artibus et Historiae 24(48), 2003, pp. 185–197. URL last accessed 2011-11-06.
  8. ^ Czapla, p. 62.
  9. ^ a b c d Czapla, p. 63.
  10. ^ Aschbach, Joseph: Geschichte der Wiener Universität, Vol. 2: Die Wiener Universität und ihre Humanisten im Zeitalter Kaiser Maximilians I., Vienna 1877, p. 438f. URL last accessed 2012-11-06.
  11. ^ Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: Trinkschale des Augustin Kesenbrot, genannt Olmützer. URL last accessed 2012-11-06.
  12. ^ Glomski, Jacqueline: Patronage and Humanist Literature in the Age of the Jagiellons, University of Toronto Press 2007, ISBN 978-0-8020-9300-4, p. 101–103.
  13. ^ Czapla, pp. 63/64.
  14. ^ Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke: Augustinus Moravus, December 14, 2011. URL last accessed 2012-11-06.
  15. ^ Czapla, p. 67.