BBCH-scale (pome fruit)

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In biology, the BBCH-scale for pome fruit describes the phenological development of fruits such as apples and pears using the BBCH-scale.

The phenological growth stages and BBCH-identification keys of pome fruit are:

Growth stage Code Description
0: Sprouting/Bud development 00 Dormancy: leaf buds and the thicker inflorescence buds closed and covered by dark brown scales
01 Beginning of leaf bud swelling: buds visibly swollen, bud scales elongated, with light coloured patches
03 End of leaf bud swelling: bud scales light coloured with some parts densely covered by hairs
07 Beginning of bud break: first green leaf tips just visible
09 Green leaf tips about 5 mm above bud scales
1: Leaf development 10 Mouse-ear stage: Green leaf tips 10 mm above the bud scales; first leaves separating
11 First leaves unfolded (others still unfolding)
15 More leaves unfolded, not yet at full size
19 First leaves fully expanded
3: Shoot development1 31 Beginning of shoot growth: axes of developing shoots visible
32 Shoots about 20% of final length
33 Shoots about 30% of final length
3 . Stages continuous till . . .
39 Shoots about 90% of final length
5: Inflorescence emergence 51 Inflorescence buds swelling: bud scales elongated, with light coloured patches
52 End of bud swelling: light coloured bud scales visible with parts densely covered by hairs
53 Bud burst: green leaf tips enclosing flowers visible
54 Mouse-ear stage: green leaf tips 10 mm above bud scales; first leaves separating
55 Flower buds visible (still closed)
56 Green bud stage: single flowers separating (still closed)
57 Pink bud stage: flower petals elongating; sepals slightly open; petals just visible
59 Most flowers with petals forming a hollow ball
6: Flowering 60 First flowers open
61 Beginning of flowering: about 10% of flowers open
62 About 20% of flowers open
63 About 30% of flowers open
64 About 40% of flowers open
65 Full flowering: at least 50% of flowers open, first petals falling
67 Flowers fading: majority of petals fallen
69 End of flowering: all petals fallen
7: Development of fruit 71 Fruit size up to 10 mm; fruit fall after flowering
72 Fruit size up to 20 mm
73 Second fruit fall
74 Fruit diameter up to 40 mm; fruit erect

(T-stage: underside of fruit and stalk forming a T)

75 Fruit about half final size
76 Fruit about 60% final size
77 Fruit about 70% final size
78 Fruit about 80% final size
79 Fruit about 90% final size
8: Maturity of fruit and seed 81 Beginning of ripening: first appearance of cultivar-specific colour
85 Advanced ripening: increase in intensity of cultivar-specific colour
87 Fruit ripe for picking
89 Fruit ripe for consumption: fruit have typical taste and firmness
9: Senescence, beginning of dormancy 91 Shoot growth completed; terminal bud developed; foliage still fully green
92 Leaves begin to discolour
93 Beginning of leaf fall
95 50% of leaves discoloured
97 All leaves fallen
99 Harvested product

1 From terminal bud


Meier, U.; H. Graf; M. Hess; W. Kennel; R. Klose; D. Mappes; D. Seipp; R. Stauss; J. Streif; T. van den Boom (1994). "Phänologische Entwick-lungsstadien des Kernobstes (Malus domestica Borkh. und Pyrus communis L.), des Steinobstes (Prunus-Arten), der Johannisbeere (Ribes-Arten) und der Erdbeere (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).". Nachrichtenbl. Deut. Pflanzenschutzd. 46: 141–153. 

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