Barbara Rylko-Bauer (born 1950) is a medical anthropologist and author who lives in the United States. She is an adjunct associate professor at Michigan State University's Department of Anthropology. She was born in 1950 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and emigrated with her parents to the United States that same year.
Rylko-Bauer received an undergraduate degree in microbiology from the University of Michigan, and in 1985 was awarded a PhD in anthropology from the University of Kentucky. Her interests include medical anthropology, applied anthropology, social suffering, health care inequities in the US, health and human rights, narrative analysis, and the Holocaust. She has published various articles, chapters, and books on these topics. She has served as a contributing editor to the American Anthropology Association's Anthropology News for the Society for Medical Anthropology (1991–1994) and for the AAA Committee on Practicing, Applied, and Public Interest Anthropology (2013-2014), as book review editor for Medical Anthropology Quarterly (1994–2000), and on several committees for the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Her most recent work focuses on the intersection of health and violence and includes a volume, Global Health in TImes of Violence, edited in collaboration with Linda Whiteford and Paul Farmer In addition, she is the author of a biography-memoir, A Polish Doctor in the Nazi Camps: My Mother's Memories of Imprisonment, Immigration, and a Life Remade, which focuses on her mother's experiences as a Polish prisoner-doctor in Nazi slave labor camps and her efforts to rebuild her life, first as a refugee doctor in Germany, and later as an immigrant to the United States.
- United States: Sentenced to Sickness. August 2003. Le Monde diplomatique 
- Miria Kano, Cathleen Willging, and Barbara Rylko-Bauer. 2009. Community Participation in New Mexico’s Behavioral Health Care Reform. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 23(3):277-297.
- Alisse Waterston and Barbara Rylko-Bauer. 2006. Out of the Shadows of History and Memory: Personal Family Narratives in Ethnographies of Rediscovery. American Ethnologist 33(3):397-412.
- Barbara Rylko-Bauer. 2005. Lessons About Humanity and Survival from My Mother and from the Holocaust. Anthropological Quarterly 78(1):11-41.
- Barbara Rylko-Bauer, Merrill Singer, and John van Willigen. 2006. Reclaiming Applied Anthropology: Its Past, Present, and Future. American Anthropologist 108(1):178-190.
- Barbara Rylko-Bauer and John van Willigen. 1993. A Framework for Developing Utilization-Focused Policy Research in Anthropology. In Speaking the Language of Power, D. M. Fetterman, ed. Falmer.
- John van Willigen, Barbara Rylko-Bauer, and Ann McElroy, eds. Making Our Research Useful. Case Studies in the Utilization of Anthropological Knowledge. Westview Press, 1989.
- Barbara Rylko-Bauer, Linda Whiteford, and Paul Farmer, eds. 2009. Global Health in Times of Violence. Santa Fe, NM: School of Advanced Research Press. ISBN 978-1-934691-14-4 http://sarweb.org/?sar_press_global_health_in_times_of_violence
- Rylko-Bauer, Barbara (2014). A Polish Doctor in the Nazi Camps: My Mother's Memories of Imprisonment, Immigration, and a Life Remade. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-4431-3.
- Barbara Rylko-Bauer and Paul Farmer. 2002. Managed Care or Managed Inequality? A Call for Critiques of Market-Based Medicine. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16(4):476-502.